Am 9. They had no problems with morale. Sudan … General Gordon, der den Sudan evakuieren sollte, beschloss aber, um Khartum zu kämpfen. A force of 4,000 was sent to capture him, but it was ambushed near El Obeid and destroyed, and all of its equipment captured. The real authority in Egypt was Her Britannic Majesty’s agent in Cairo, Sir Edward Malet. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Hicks Expedition [edit | edit source] With the Egyptian government now passing largely under British control (see; History of modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)), the European powers became increasingly aware of the troubles in the Sudan. Mahdist Wars in Sudan 1881-a Sudanese Islamic cleric, Muhammad Ahmad, proclaimed himself the Mahdi. The Mahdi's forces had grown spectacularly, and by 1883 British sources placed their size at 200,000, although that is almost certainly an overestimate. They were stripped naked and sent to el-Obeid with ropes round their necks. Long before, though, he had confidently predicted that all Hicks’s Krupps and machine-guns would not deter the Mahdi’s fanatics. Nearby were the bodies of the two men for whom Klootz had served as orderly – the giant Prussian Major Baron Gotz von Seckendorff, and the drunken Irish war-correspondent Edmund O’Donovan, of the Daily News. The new Sudan Governor will likely make a muck of things and then all Hell will break loose as the Mahdi increases his number of followers. The balance of power had tipped, and he now had the Sudan in the palm of his hand. By dawn the next day – 4 November – the Mahdi’s riflemen had crept through the scrub to within yards of the enemy. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. God’s Expected One!’ Mohammad Ahmad had performed a miracle. This gave Hicks no choice but to turn north to another pool with the unenticing name of Fula al-Masarin, the ‘Pool of the Entrails’. Der Plan von Hicks Pascha sah zunächst vor, von hier aus eine Ketten von befestigten Posten, besetzt mit je 200 Mann bis zum Ziel anzulegen. His government was determined to show the British they were still capable of handling trouble in their own back yard. When the stench of the dead grew too oppressive, the dervishes decamped for el-Obeid. Feuer und Schwert im Sudan: Slatin Pascha. Others had even rubbed lime into their eyes to ruin their eyesight. Gladstone’s government, he said, could not claim to have been unaware of the dangers. Frank Power’s observations had proved tragically prescient. Hicks was worried. ‘He feared nothing… the bravest of all the brave men I have known.’ Afterwards, the heads of both Hicks and Seckendorff were cut off and carried as trophies to the dervish camp, where Klootz was required to identify them. Many of the troops had been captured by the British fighting for the Egyptian nationalist leader, Colonel ‘Arabi Pasha, at Tel el-Kebir in the Nile Delta the previous year. Even the Mahdi himself had not expected such a complete victory. Those who had believed from the beginning that he was the Messiah foretold in legend could point to Shaykan as proof. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The wildest confusion followed. Der … The Mahdist Uprising in Sudan 1881-85, Perry Miniatures 2010, ISBN 978-0-9561842-1-4 (englisch). There will probably be a Hicks-like expedition disaster that will draw Gordon out of retirement, forcing him to return to Khartoum in order to right the ship. He had produced a report outlining the risks of an expedition into hostile territory, which had been scathing about the cowardliness of the Egyptian troops and their officers. He had arrived in the Sudan with dreams of a knighthood, and later of taking over from the current Sirdar or Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian army, Sir Evelyn Wood, VC. London: Kegan … We are faint and weary and have no idea what to do…’ The firefight continued all day. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Übertritt zum Islam. ‘They fought in detached groups, each body of men surrounded by [dervishes], who picked them off in turn.’. So wollte er die Versorgung und den Rückweg der Armee sichern. All loot was supposed to be handed in to the communal hoard, the bayt al-mal. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. September 1883 verließ Hicks mit dem Expeditionsheer Khartum zur Rückeroberung von al-Ubayyid und der Provinz Kordofan. These posts would also serve as way stations for supply caravans due to move up later from the Nile. As Power had predicted, the Mahdi’s men were not perturbed by Hicks’s Krupps or Nordenfeldts. Claiming a direct revelation from the Prophet Mohammad, the Mahdi also announced that on the day of battle forty thousand angels would join them, swooping down on the unbelievers like giant raptors. In den 1880ern forderte der „Gottesstaat“ des Mahdi Großbritannien heraus. The British advisers to the Egyptian government gave tacit consent for another expedition. After the Mahdi retreated into Kordofan in 1881 he started to raise an army there and in Darfur. In March 1883 a British officer, Lieut. As an Englishman in the service of the Egyptian Khedive, though, Hicks was in a difficult position. Hicks, who had de facto authority in the Sudan, could have disputed the Khedive’s instructions by arguing that his superiors in Cairo were unaware of conditions on the ground. He hired a number of European officers to lead his force, placing them under the command of William "Billy" Hicks, a retired colonel who had experience in India and Abyssinia. Some booty was auctioned, some distributed as presents, but he gave short shrift to any private acquisitiveness. General William Hicks. The bodies were scattered over a distance of two miles through the thorn-scrub: eleven thousand Egyptian soldiers and camp-followers in piles, hacked, stabbed and shot to ribbons. Similar skirmishes followed over the next few weeks. Nobody who had witnessed the treatment of looters at Shaykan was now likely to dispute Mohammad Ahmad’s claim – at least not in public. Instead of showing a firm hand, though, Gladstone’s government had allowed Hicks’s men to go like lambs to the slaughter. The expedition had started well enough on 20th September. The leading square had buckled instantly under the onslaught. Anfang August übertrug man Hicks den Oberbefehl über alle im Sudan stehenden ägyptischen Truppen, mit der Aufgabe eine Expedition nach Kordofan, zur Rückeroberung El-Obeids, durchzuführen. Here, the dervishes operated a scorched-earth policy, moving tribes from their villages, polluting or filling in wells, and manipulating the movement of the column. Dervish horsemen had charged to within a few yards of the square, but had been flattened by volleys from the Egyptian troops. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). Clip from the 1966 movie "Khartoum" (134 min; USA 128 min). A few hundred dervishes had been killed. ‘It is most important that this campaign is a successful one,’ he had written in January, ‘as the retention or loss of the Sudan depends on it.’6 Originally sent to Khartoum as second-in-command, he had fought hard to get himself appointed commander-in-chief. Die Belagerung. Later they were stuck on spikes over the gate of el-Obeid. The Mahdi had revived the primitive communism of traditional Islam. Vorgeschichte. Tribesmen who had cached weapons or treasure on the battlefield for later collection were flogged with hippo-hide whips until they died or revealed where it was. In June, he had suggested that the army should be used simply to defend the Sudan’s capital, Khartoum, and the Jazira – the area to the south between the Blue and White Niles. He hired a number of European officers to lead his force, placing them under the command of William "Billy" Hicks, a retired colonel who had experience in India and Abyssinia. ( Log Out /  His stallion wounded, he slipped out of the saddle and fought the enemy off with his blade, until he was speared to death. Later, some of the tribesmen swore they had actually seen these dark angels on the battlefield. On the day after the victory, there had been a hundred-gun salute in the town. Now, there were scenes of savage ecstasy as the victorious warriors marched in trailing shrouds of dust. These included the Sheikh of the Kinana tribe from the White Nile, and fourteen of his men, who had been blown to shreds by a single artillery shell – proving, at least, that Hicks’s men did get their guns into action. As for Hicks himself, his name had been literally picked out of a hat in Cairo’s Shepheard’s Hotel. It would also have been anathema to a professional soldier who had just been given his first big command, and might even have opened him to a charge of cowardice. The men were drunk with victory, moving to a mesmerizing chant of la ilaha illa-llah (there is no god but Allah). Fighting in sight of the Nile, with the support of armed steamers, was one thing: marching out into the arid steppes of Kordofan was quite another. Hicks’s force had been moving tactically in three ragged squares, one up and two back. The government still possessed garrisons in the other provinces, some of them commanded by Europeans – Frank Lupton in Bahr al-Ghazal, Emin Pasha in Fashoda, Rudolf von Slatin in Darfur. Only about 500 Egyptian troops managed to escape and make it back to Khartoum. First came the banners, scarlet, black and green, followed by ranks of footmen tens of thousands strong. He was told to use the medical supplies he had collected on the battlefield to salve its wound. He had contributed to the massacre by alerting the enemy to the column’s weakness. If, against all odds, Hicks succeeded, they would enjoy the kudos. They outnumbered the Egyptians at least four to one, and believed they were fighting for God. Sir William Hicks, 1st Baronet (1596–1680), English Member of Parliament, Royalist officer at the Siege of Colchester; William Hicks (British soldier) (1830–1883), British soldier who served in the Bombay army William Hicks (Cherokee chief) (1769–c. He had survived more than twenty actions in India and Abyssinia, and had been mentioned in dispatches twice. The only organized resistance came from the eleven European officers and their bodyguard of Bashi-Bazuks, or irregular cavalry – mostly Turks, Albanians and Shaygiyya tribesmen from the northern Sudan. In 1861 he became captain, and in the Ousted in 1879 and replaced by the nationalist Colonel ‘Arabi Pasha, he had been reinstated by the British after the battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882. Reluctantly agreeing to take this route, Hicks planned to leave small garrisons at intervals along it to safeguard a withdrawal. The Egyptian Governor, Rauf Pasha, decided that the only solution to the growing rebellion was a fight, and against the advice of his British advisors started to raise an army of his own. After the battle the Mahdist army made El Obeid a center for operations for some time. The Dervish will close in from the south and cut off communications between Kartoum … From this day on, the Mahdi became an object of veneration. They were stripping the corpses of everything – weapons, ammunition, boots, watches, even the blood-soaked uniforms themselves. After them came the cavalry, trotting, reining in, and launching suddenly into ferocious mock charges, with their spears thrust out. Power was supposed to accompany Hicks but was providentially evacuated back to Khartoum with dysentery on the third day out. Im Sommer 1881 brach der Mahdi-Aufstand aus. Seven slaves in the service of the Mahdi’s own uncle, Sayid Mohammad Taha, had their right hands and left feet slashed off publicly for concealing plunder. The sky was already black with circling vultures. Klootz saw one dead soldier hanging suspended from a huge baobab tree, where he had probably climbed in a futile attempt to escape the slaughter. Hicks Pasha expedition to Kordofan, 1883 Image ID FOT1537421 Rights RM Rights Managed Image Details Image File Attributes 10.2 MB JPEG Image Dimensions 3265 x 2594 px Image Print Size (at 300 ppi) 276 x 220 mm 10.9 x 8.6 in Visual Size @300ppi. That most of the enemy were fellow Muslims mattered not a jot. The Egyptian colonial government had walked into this massacre through over-confidence and a desire for decisive action. They had been pressing forward for no more than an hour when the dervishes launched their final devastating charge. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Das ägyptische Heer für die Kordofan-Expedition (engl. After harassing the column for weeks, on 1 or 2 November – the actual date is disputed – the dervishes had occupied the water-pool at Birka, forty miles south of el-Obeid. They were released for service in Most were held by small numbers of ill-equipped troops isolated in remote outposts in the trackless wilderness. Those who were not executed later were left to beg in the market place, and eventually died of starvation. Hicks himself was one of the last to die. W. Dennistoun Sword, Henry S. L. Alford: Egyptian Soudan. Their success also emboldened Osman Digna, whose Hadendoa tribesmen, the so-called fuzzy-wuzzies, joined the rebellion from their lands on the Red Sea coast. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It had been impressed on him, though, that his appointment was a fine opportunity to distinguish himself. Later during the summer of 1883 they heard that the Mahdi himself was besieging El Obeid, a small town set up by the Egyptians some years earlier and now the capital of Kordofan. Below - Egyptian Army officers in the Sudan, during the period of Hicks' Expedition force. Hicks was a good officer but felt unable to delegate, because none of his men had had staff experience. The Mahdi was believed to be replete with baraka, the mystical life force possessed by all holy men, which could be passed on by touch. (de) Colonel William Hicks (also known as Hicks Pasha, 1830–1883), British soldier, entered the Bombay Army in 1849, and served through the Indian … They carried supplies for 50 days on an immense baggage train consisting of 5,000 camels. Had Hicks followed his instincts he might still have prevailed. He emptied his revolver three times, loading and reloading automatically. Having attained his wish, it would have seemed churlish of him to refuse to march. Despite the calumnies poured on him afterwards, he was no fool. The rebellion was led by a Muslim holy man named Mohammad Ahmad, who claimed to be the Mahdi – the direct successor of the Prophet Mohammad. Most had been sent to the Sudan in shackles. According to Father Joseph Ohrwalder, an Austrian Catholic missionary who was a prisoner in el-Obeid at the time, their voices were like the sound of a rushing stream. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}13°11′00″N 30°13′00″E / 13.1833°N 30.2167°E / 13.1833; 30.2167, Woods of Shaykan near Kashgil, 220 miles southwest of, Learn how and when to remove this template message,, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 September 2020, at 05:25. It was an ideal spot for an ambush. Three months in the Soudan. The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. Nach vereitelter Festnahme floh dessen Anführer, Muhammad Ahmad, mit seinen Anhängern nach Gedir in das Nuba-Gebirge. He had taken on the largest government force ever sent into the region and annihilated it. Hicks set out with his army from Khartoum on 5 September 1883, on a campaign that, as Times correspondent Frank Power commented, ‘even the most sanguine look forward to with the greatest gloom’. They initially stayed near Khartoum and met small portions of the Mahdist forces on April 29, near the fort of Kawa, on the Nile, beating them off without too much trouble. Als Gouverneur von Darfur. With the Egyptian government now passing largely under British control (see: History of modern Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)), the European powers became increasingly aware of the troubles in the Sudan. William Hicks may refer to: . Stewart had been clear in his opinion that, should Hicks be defeated, the whole of the Sudan would probably be lost. Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, a Liberal, was reluctant to get drawn into affairs in the Sudan. ‘What must be the condition of an army,’ he had written in his journal after Klootz had absconded, ‘when even a European servant deserts to the enemy?’, Klootz, a tall, blond Berliner with socialist notions, had joined the dervishes at er-Rahad a week previously and had converted to Islam. The Khedive Tewfiq had at first dismissed the rebellion as a local disturbance by religious fanatics. It was the largest modern army ever dispatched into the interior of the Sudan: 8,300 infantry, nearly two thousand cavalry, an artillery battery of sixteen Krupp mountain-guns and Nordenfeldt machine-guns, and a baggage-train of two thousand men and some six thousand camels, mules and donkeys. Some warriors, intoxicated by the mantra, wheeled and circled out of the columns, brandishing their spears and letting out blood-curdling roars. So we contented ourselves with skirmishing and firing rifles at the [enemy]. His Foreign Secretary, George Leveson-Gower, Lord Granville, had obliged Malet to carry on the pretence that, in its relations with the Sudan, the Egyptian government was in fact independent. ( Log Out /  They had wheeled and fired blindly into the mêlée, killing their own comrades as well as the enemy. They did not perturb the Mahdi. Some of the dead were smouldering from bullets fired at point-blank range. When the Mahdists captured el Obeid, severing all Slatin's links with Khartoum and Hicks Pasha's expedition was annihilated at the Battle of Shaykan in 1883, Slatin finally surrendered to his old enemy the Mahdist Emir Madibbo, refusing to make any further sacrifice of life in a hopeless cause. Kapitulation und Gefangennahme. ‘We dervishes were anxious to attack at once,’ said Bela Ahmad Siraj, one of the Mahdi’s men, interviewed years later, ‘but the Mahdi restrained us. Besides, the Mahdi had assured his men that they were invulnerable. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. After the massacre, the dervish army remained near Shaykan for a week, collecting the spoils of war – sacks of biscuits, rice and barley, suits of mail, camels, horses, mules, donkeys, rifles, pistols, ammunition, swords, bayonets, shovels, clothing, watches, gold, silver and cash, as well as the Krupps and Nordenfeldts, and their shells. His followers were known as daraweesh, after the Sudanese colloquial word for ‘holy men’ – anglicized as ‘dervishes’. Malet agreed with Hicks that the army should be used only to defend Khartoum, but his hands were tied by his own government. Here, in April, his field force had held steady and had scored one of a handful of victories against the rebels in the past two years. These and the other dervish dead were buried with simple ceremony, while the enemy dead were left for the vultures. Among the corpses was that of Klootz’s former commander, Lieut. Ein österreichischer Offizier in Afrika. Slatins Konflikt mit Gordon . Fifty-three years old, married with two children, his ambition was to obtain a secure full-time post in the Egyptian service. When they moved off, they left scores of dead behind them, and even artillery pieces whose crews had been wiped out. A British officer who had inspected them in Cairo before departure had been shocked to discover that some had cut off their own trigger-fingers to avoid being re-enlisted. The Egyptian officials decided to capture him and, despite Hicks' reluctance, planned an expedition from their current location at Duem on the Nile to El Obeid, about 200 miles away. After marching for some time they were set upon by the entire Mahdist army on November 3. The dervishes claimed they were infidels being consumed by hellfire. Between two and three hundred Egyptian soldiers who had survived by hiding under the piles of dead were herded together. He knew that he was no longer leading a rebellion. Die verspätete Entsatzexpedition. Since then, Khedive Tewfiq had ruled only in name. By early 1883, though, it had become clear that if el-Obeid was not retaken the whole of the Sudan might be lost. Then, in January 1883, Kordofan’s capital, el-Obeid, had fallen. Gordons Mission im Mahdi-Aufstand.

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