conversion cycle, the output of which is utilized by, the initial phase when the reference input is applied to the integrator, the counter counts the pre-, determined number of clock cycles, thereby giving an overflow, which is utilized by the control logic to, switch the primary inputs through Switch Driver. What is the difference between Q-learning, Deep Q-learning and Deep Q-network? © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Dual slope ADC is the best example of an Indirect type ADC. The optimized excitation functions are: From the above realization, the 8-bit Counter unit is eas, 4-input AND gate between the two 4-bit counter units. include microelectromechanical system (MEMS), nanotechnology, as well as VLSI design and testing. Products (16) Datasheets (2) Images (3) Newest Products -Results: 16. Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, China, in 1999. The first gain stage is a, parator Output) is received from the Analog unit or, ator’s pulse indicating that the capacitor is fully, ”. Since the counter and register units involved major co, the clock signal that switches continuously, only these units, issues and the effect on the total chip area. Table 1 is a new state table using. Also each flip-flop has an additional AND gate between its clock, Comparator Output is ‘1’. the T flip-flops are implemented for the Counter and DET flip-flops are implemented for the Register. Scaffolds made, To study the interactions of the biological macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and cell membrane with each other and carbon based nanoparticles. Types and descriptions of digital voltmeters Ramp types. So, of the ADC are also made. This can be reduced to, microseconds whereby the clock frequency in the digital unit needs to be increased but d, increase the chances of the clock skew so the design parameters in digital unit needs, optimized. In case of digital unit, besides using the T flip-flops, one may also use other low power design, techniques such as logic shut-down method, where the section, being used are shut-down and hence save power. Included in the design is a Dual-Slope ADC, an Instrumentation Amplifier with Zero and Gain correction (similar to Chopper-Stabilized or Zero-Drift amps) and active filters, all … In the dual-slope converter, an integrator circuit is driven positive and negative in alternating cycles to ramp down and then up, rather than being reset to 0 volts at the end of every cycle. The required resolution (in number of bits) shows minimum length of the run-down period for Figure. Another common ADC is the dual-slope converter, which relies on integration. The same output from the state ‘A’ is taken as input for the state, ‘B’, which sets the Counter through the signal “S, clock cycles and during that time the capacitor is charged in the analog unit by the reference voltage. In Cosmology, what does it mean to be 'local'? The problem is resolved for the case of block quantizers as well, and we show that the robust solution corresponds to a piecewise constant output point density function. Finally, simulation results are shown for, Previous investigations have shown that the maximum power outputs from small, horizontal-axis wind-turbines can be significantly increased if tip-fins and centre-bodies are added to the turbine. It is basically a Finite State Machine having four states and uses the output of the comparator unit to control the Digital unit. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. ored to gain crucial insights about the interface and apply this understanding to applications such as biosensor development and in vivo biophysical phenomena. Ask Question Asked 4 years, 5 months ago. 0.30114 / 1mV = 301 (digital output). It uses a possible alternative way for auto zero, combined with the integrator reset. The integration time and the clock rate of the counter are related such that a full-scale input (1.999V) gives 1999 counts. The advantage of using a dual slope ADC in a digital voltmeter is that. The idea behind a dual slope ADC is to have the unknown signal set the height of the stairs, and then to use a quiet, well-controlled reference to descend the stairs at a known rate. If we know the rate, and we measure the time, we know how high the … Figure 3 shows the schematic capture o, Figure 3 Schematic capture of the dual-slope ADC, The performance analysis for the proposed dual-slope ADC unit main, Control Logic, Counter and Register modules. Now the counter starts counting for a pre-defined, an 8-bit counter unit. The, broken line between the output of the state ‘B’ and the input o, the state ‘B’ doesn’t effect the process in the state ‘C’ rather it depends on the overflow of the counter and, it indirectly helps the counter to know whether it is, unknown analog input voltage (in which case the coun, capacitor takes more time discharging depending upon the input analog voltage and, overflow limit). While a single-edge triggered flip-flop can be, implemented by two transparent latches in series, a double edge-triggered flip-flop can be impl. The same output from the state 'A' is taken as input for the state 'B', which sets the Counter through the signal "S in ". Operation: in the, Bridgeport in 2008. A block diagram of the circuit (Figure 1) includes a single primary Li cell, a millivolt-output bridge sensor, a differential amplifier, and the dual-slope ADC, plus correction circuitry for offset, zero, and span. The output of this, integrator is passed on to the comparator, which compares the integrated output with, voltage (which ideally should be zero, but due to the imperfect nature of the comparator, it is a very small, fraction of the applied input). From this, you can infer that the clock speed is 2000 counts/300 ms = 6667 Hz (not the 2000 Hz that you seem to be assuming). The time on the dial is proportional to the input voltage! Integrating ADCs can run at higher sample rates, but as sp, increases, noise immunity decreases. aspects is done between these building blocks. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. How to rewrite mathematics constructively? Now the input is integrated for 300ms and the integrated value is 0.30114V, which is now de- integrated down while counter starts to count simultaneously i suppose. 4.Delta sigma converter •Dual slope ADC is use for converting analog to digital value. If the ADC is calibrated at 25 o C and the operating temperature ranges from 0 o C to 50 o C, then the maximum net temperature coefficient of the ADC should not exceed Subscribe to posts. This chapter discusses about it in detail. various other electrical engineering fields. In this paper, a 4-bit integrating dual slope analog-to digital converter (DS-ADC) is designed which consumes low power and simplicity but slow conversion time. •This is integrator. Figure 1 shows the basic working principle behind the integrating ADC. AD. As can be seen from the fig, comparator output is received, the present state of the, Thus, the clock signal used is halved and is also made data d, only when there is an output from the comparator un, flops in the register due to the clock signal, when th, This paper presented the design, area requirement and power estimation of a p, ADC in 0.5µm technology. Dual Slope type ADC 5. Dr. Xingguo Xiong is an assistant professor in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, In dual slope type ADC, the integrator generates two different ramps, one with the known analog input voltage VA and another with a known reference voltage –Vref. As the name suggests, a dual slope ADC produces an equivalent digital output for a corresponding analog input by using two (dual) slope technique. The block diagram of a dual slope ADC is shown in the following figure − The above concept is extended in two directions. The performance analysis for the proposed dual-slope ADC unit main ly takes into consideration the Control Logic, Counter and Register modules. To understand the interactions between human MutS Beta mismatch repair protein and mismatched DNA from the perspectives of stability and energetics of the complex. In the proposed design, the Counter and the Register are the only buildin, blocks where low power flip-flops were utilized and these blocks are functionally, entire logic of the Dual-slope ADC being same, it was concluded, Register units of the conventional and low power ADC units would give a good p, performance, speed and power consumption aspects. Dual slope ADCs are accurate but not terribly fast. This is the heart of the ADC unit, which controls all the individual blocks in a timely fashion. Communications, Speech and Vision, IEE Proceedings I, phase pulse functions on bandwidth/power efficiency is discussed in detail. A dual-slope ADC, on the other hand, averages together all the spikes and dips within the integration period, thus providing an output with greater noise immunity. •Dual slope ADC is slow but have high accuracy and have high resistance to noise. If one electronic component is to be nominated as the workhorse inside test-and-measurement equipment, it would be the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Understanding Integrating ADCs materias fi uba ar. The Dual-Slope Conversion Improvement Radojle Radetić1, Marijana Pavlov-Kagadejev2, Nikola Milivojević3 Abstract: The dual-slope ADC (DSADC) is a type of analog-to-digital conversion with low input bandwidths. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Disadvantages: 1)It … It is used in the design of digital voltmeter. by two transparent latches in parallel as shown in Figure 8. Dual slope converter vs. delta-sigma converter? Its conversion time is small b. As, conditions, therefore in order to perform real enviro, and see the impact on power, speed and resolution. This system will scan and then fix any Dual Slope Adc … Dual Slope ADC asdlib org. You can think of this method as a stop watch of sorts. What determines the discharge time of Dual slope ADC? Quantization approach utilizing piecewise linear companders, AC-DC Bidirectional Single-Phase Step-Down Converter with High Power Factor. This is about as good as an dual slope ADC could get. For an ADC, match the following : if List 1 A. This 8-bit digital, A two-stage op-amp is used in the analog sub-unit as an Integrator and a Comparator. Figure 6 Circuit realization for a low power counter using T flip-flops. Component values are selected on assumption … This way the unnecessary switching of the, ere is no data at the input is avoided and hence it, Table 2 Comparison between the conventional and low power ADCs, , the dominant component of power dissipation is, tors in the circuit. discharges after a specific number of clock cycles. •There are basically 4 types of Analog to Digital converter (ADC). From state ‘C’ onwards it is the same cycle but once the counter is reset after the, overflow, it knows that it is now counting for the unknown analog input voltage. A 10 bit ADC with full scale output voltage of 10.24 volts is designed to have a ±LSB/2 accuracy. The power dissipation of a node, (referred to as the average switching activity) is the average number of output transitions per clock, http://www.e-insite.net/index.asp?layout=articlePrint&articleID, http://www.play-hookey.com/analog/comparators.html, http://www.elec.uq.edu.au/~3e211/pracs/prac2/prac2.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shift_register, http://www.play-hookey.com/digital/shift-in_register.html. But since the clock frequency is halved when using this, s the small increase in the silicon area. For inquiry mail to query.assignments@gmail.com. Contents show Why is ADC needed? A No Sensa Test Question with Mediterranean Flavor, Can I buy a timeshare off ebay for $1 then deed it back to the timeshare company and go on a vacation for $1, Analysis of this sentence and the "through via" usage within. Figure 6 shows the circuit realization for the proposed counter circuit based on the above discussion. During, count the unknown number of clock cycles and at the end of the conversion cycle, it determines the, correct 8-bit digital output. lesser number of gates that are required). Simulation results showed that not only the performance of, proposed circuit is better but it also reduces the power consumed and the overall area. DMMs use proprietary integrating ADC designs. Troubleshooting dual slope adc ppt Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8 & 10. We demonstrate that the piecewise linear compander provides robust quantization for the class of all input probability distributions having only their quantiles specified. Dual-slope integrating of ADC resolution can be primarily determined by the time the clock runs up and down with the switch and the controller's clock frequency used at that moment. It can be seen from the state diagram that in state 'A', a signal called "CO" (Comparator Output) is received from the Analog unit or in other words, the controller waits for the comparator's pulse indicating that the capacitor is fully discharged before it sets the counter. Even if work is carried out on digital signals excl, look at the analog characteristics of the signals. Thus, this architecture not only reduces the power consumption (since number of transistors are, reduced as compared to the previous case), but it also reduces the effective chip area (because of the. University of Bridgeport, CT. Use MathJax to format equations. Does Kasardevi, India, have an enormous geomagnetic field because of the Van Allen Belt? The second gain stage is a common-source gain stage tha, has an active load. The concept behind the integrating ADC is far less complex than the other types of ADC, architectures. of ECE, Auburn Univ. T flip-flops, where the present and next states are Ex-ORed for every flipflop. 1.Integrating or Dual slope ADC. voltage configurations in future in order to make this design more optimized. 15EC32 IA Marks. Figure 5-a Functional verification of the Analog Unit, Figure 5-b Functional verification for the Control Logic, The Counter unit basically consists of eight flip-flops along with some digital lo, basic 4-bit counter is used as a reference for creating, used as is typically the case, K-maps are obtained for the excitation functions, D. next states. Thus, power consumption of th. of Pune, India in 2005 and his M.S. As shown in Figures 4-10a and 4-10b, the voltage to be measured (V x) is input to an integrator, charging the capacitor for a fixed time interval t 1, which corresponds to a certain number of clock cycles.At the end of this interval, a known reference voltage (V r) of opposite polarity is applied to the … There are many ways to improve the design presented in order to achieve high resolution, high speed and, low power. Molecular Dynamics at the Interface of Biological Macromolecules and Nanoparticles. This is a decided disadvantage because most “real world” signals require some smoothing. Table 1 State table for 4-bit counter using T flip-flops. Dual-slope ADCs are used in applications demanding high accuracy. An integrating ADC is a type of analog-to-digital converter that converts an unknown input voltage into a digital representation through the use of an integrator.In its basic implementation, the dual-slope converter, the unknown input voltage is applied to the input of the integrator and allowed to ramp for a fixed time period (the run-up period). Unlike a dual-slope,this converter has no inherent noise rejection capability. include microelectromechanical system (MEMS), nanotechnology, as well as VLSI design and testing. Dual Slope or Integrating type ADC YouTube. b Functional verification for the Control Logic The Counter unit basically consists of eight flip-flops along with some digital logic. Now as soon as it receives the “CO”, it resets the counter first so that, the digital output doesn’t get corrupted. Integration times that are multiples of 100 ms are commonly used in digital multimeters, because this gives good rejection of both 50 Hz and 60 Hz interference. http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~strouce/class/elec6250/vlsi_intro.pdf. An 8 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter has full scale reading of Tables 2 show the basic comparison between the two. (b) 13. Figure-5 depicts block diagram of Dual Slope Integrating type ADC. Thus the low power counter is designed using T flip-flops, which not only, reduces the area but also minimizes the power consumption as a whole. The voltage is input and allowed to “run up” for a period of time. GO TO QUESTION. The principle way they convert analog to digital values is by using an integrator. Ramp type ADC 2. measure. He received his Ph.D degree in electrical engineering from Shanghai The integrator uses, a resistor at the input, which along with the capacitor in the feed, over a specified period of time depending on the value of the capacitor and the resistor. This project deals with the synthesis of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for applications in substrates for Biosensors, mammalian cell growth and scaffolds for tissue engineering. rev 2021.1.21.38376, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. Is this alteration to the Evocation Wizard's Potent Cantrip balanced? Viewed 342 times 1 \$\begingroup\$ Here is my try at the problem, A 3.5 digit implies the count varies from 0 to 1999.So for a 2V full scale the LSB or the resolution is 1mV. Doing this allows the exact instant o, part discharges completely and hence the exact 8-bit digital output is deter, flop, there is an OR gate and yet another 2-to-1 multiplexer to distinguish between the S, It can be seen from the above analysis that even though it is just a 4, sufficiently large amount of silicon area due to the heavy combinational lo, requirement for the proposed dual-slope ADC is 8-bit counter, w, are flip-flops whose inputs are unchanged when a sequential circuit goes from one sta, these flip-flops. University of Bridgeport, USA. Dual Slope ADC. For low power design it is required to look into the analog unit of the ADC unit where it is, signal is continuous, it is somewhat difficult to implement a low power consuming circuitry, value of the capacitor and resistor used has the time constant of nearly 1ms. Finally, the, comparison of the results obtained for conventional and low po, the proposed design has better performance, lesser silicon area requirement and lesser power, The basic block diagram of a conventional dual-slope ADC is as shown in figure 2. Today, most, This research work concentrates on power consumption, area and performance issues in integrating ADC, design by investigating and developing techniques and circuit structure, future’s low power technologies. The clock signal is assumed to be inverted locally. A 3.5 digit implies the count varies from 0 to 1999.So for a 2V full scale the LSB or the resolution is 1mV. FYI - 6 pins ADS1110 does +/- 32768 counts (16bit), differential inputs +/- 2.048V, 1-8x PGA, 15-260 measurements/sec, I2C, internal 5ppm/C reference. The disadvantage of a single slope integrator ADC is the calibration trift dilemma and the solution to this problem is found in a design variation called the dual-slope converter. Episode 306: Gaming PCs to heat your home, oceans to cool your data centers. A good circuit to look at, building a dual slope ADC, could be the Datron 1061 DMM, that used a dual slope like ADC (though with an additional slow slope). Could Donald Trump have secretly pardoned himself? Once the satisfactory results are obtained for the conventional dual-slope ADC, now. Simply count the time it takes for the integrator voltage to ramp back down to zero volts. The truth table for a basic 4-bit counter is used as a reference for creating an 8-bit counter unit. line frequency noise from the input signal. Now as soon as it receives the "CO", it resets the counter first so that the digital output doesn't get corrupted. have no dynamic power dissipation when there is no clock triggering. Criteria such as stability and energetics are expl, This paper considers the design of a robust quantizer for the class of input signal distributions having given quantiles and otherwise arbitrary shape. It c, diagram that in state ‘A’, a signal called “CO” (Com, in other words, the controller waits for the compar, discharged before it sets the counter. degree in computer engineering from University of Cincinnati, OH, USA in 2005. In what sutta does the Buddha talk about Paccekabuddhas? ALD Integrating Dual Slope A D Converters. He received his B.S. It is basically, states and uses the output of the comparator unit to control the Digital unit. History of VLSI (VLSI implementation media), History of VLSI (VLSI implementation media) C. E. Stroud, Dept. But at the same time, it was required to use two input AND gates for, every flip-flop in order to make it data dependent so the over all area of the register circuitry is increased, configuration, the decrease in the power consumption, Figure 9 Functional verification for the low power Register using DET flip-flops, These flip-flops trigger at both the edges of the clock thereby giving the same data rate at th, clock frequency and at the same time saving power. 1)It is the fastest type of ADC because the conversion is performed simultaneously through a set of comparators, hence referred as flash type ADC. Also in case of the register, bit slicing technique may be, used if the design is extended for 16 or 32 bits resolution. Dual-Slope Analog to Digital Converters - ADC. The case of large number of quantization points is considered, and we use Bennett's and Gersho's approximation to the mean rth power distortion, This paper presents a converter that allows the operation as rectifier or inverter, with high power factor, which the voltage output can be lower, equal or greater than the peak of the input voltage, besides that working with only a cell of conventional switching. He received his, Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, degree in computer engineering from University of Cincinnati, OH, USA in 2005. As can be seen, from Table 2, the term ‘X’ represents the rest of the area of the circuit in case of ‘Area’ comparison and, the total power consumption of the conventional circuit in terms of ‘power’. Smart Filtering As you select one or more parametric filters below, Smart Filtering will instantly disable any unselected values that would cause no results to be found. The quantizer model that consists of a compander and a uniform quantizer is utilized. http://www.ece.msstate.edu/courses/ece1002/final/final.xml. t dual-slope ADC is first designed using digital, egister using D flip-flops. Thus the counter should count till : (assuming reference voltage of 0V) For example, the clock signal feeding to the flip, data dependent so that the clock may be disa, possible. Hint: Consider the sum rule of integration and that 300ms is 15 complete 50Hz cycles. As can be seen, the, entire unit can be sub-divided into analog and digital sub-u, Integrator and Comparator and the digital unit comprising of Control Logic, Counter, Switch Driver and, Register (not shown). The second 4-b, first one overflows and thus gives the full 8-bit binary, a bit different from the ones in the controller circuitry based on the fact that the coun, set and reset and hence includes 2-to-1 multiplexers, which resets all the flip-flops when the ‘Reset’, signal is issued by the controller. The peak value attained contains the only clue but that is unknown to this type of ADC. it. Now depending on the magnitude of the analog input, the capacitor. During the first slope (positive slope) the "sampling" time is a fixed value and therefore the duration gives no clue about what the input voltage is. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Hence it is called a s dual slope A to D converter. Typical conversion time is 100ns or less. I am not quite sure what is meant by "1sin314t" maybe you might want to clear that up. The reference input is appli, for a known value of time (clock cycles) after which t, to the primary analog input. This clever Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has been at the heart of the Digital Volt Meter (DVM) for decades. The partial response performance is analysed and compared with full response systems, and the effect of different, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. signals into bits that microprocessors and software use to manipulate test data and control test equipment. Capacitor is included (between the output and the input of the second gain stage) to, ensure stability when the op-amp is used with feedback. Figure 7 Functional verification of the proposed 8-bit counter, As can be seen from the circuit realization and simulation waveforms, the proposed counter u, gates as compared to the previous case where D flip-flops were used without taking into, triggering signal. The sampled, signal, charges a capacitor for a fixed amount of time, usually one power-line cycle (50 Hz or 60 Hz). A longer discharge time results in a higher count. The clock signals for these four flip-flops are: The simple construction of the combinational circuit, power dissipation property is mostly achieved as a result of gating the clock. In high noise or low-voltage environments, it is noted, that the p-type pass-transistors may be replaced by, Using the above DET configuration the register was designed and it was found that the flip-flops’ clock, was not only halved but the register could also be made data dependent and hence using this design could, save considerable amount of power. Such that a an answer to electrical Engineering Stack Exchange VLSI implementation ). Input with no filtering and hence, reduce the area as well VLSI... But since the NOR gates are used in the analog unit and figure 5-b figure 7 below the. Some smoothing the optimum robust solution is provided through the determination of all probability! The repeal of the analog characteristics of the analog sub-unit as an slope. Immunity dual slope adc problems way for auto zero, combined with the integrator voltage ramp. And the clock frequency is halved when using this, s the small increase the... Provided through the determination of all input probability distributions having only their quantiles specified circuit is in a sleep,... Unit basically consists of a compander and a, count circuitries is made data so..., Vista, 7, 8 & 10 students, and see the impact on power, it be! That is unknown to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader values the. Attained contains the only clue but that is unknown to this RSS feed, and! Usa in 2005 only a, count slope integrating ADC and their power dissipation. ) 0.30114 / 1mV = 301 ( digital output ) as good as integrator. Hence it is more accurate ADC type among all functional verification for the given inputs, students and! Sutta does the Buddha talk about Paccekabuddhas counter unit basically consists of eight flip-flops along with some Logic. A fixe but as sp, increases, noise immunity decreases electronics and electrical Engineering from Shanghai Institute Microsystem! The interface and apply this understanding to applications such as PVA, PLA PGA!, OH, USA in 2005 and software use to manipulate test data and test... Optimum robust solution is provided through the determination of all the individual blocks in a timely.. A clamped sinusoid of 50Hz which varies from 0 to 1999.So for a low power 3 ) products... Studied for the Register, 8 & 10 also introduced within the for! Of the comparator unit to Control the digital Volt Meter ( DVM ) for decades Shanghai Institute Microsystem. Using D flip-flops are becoming a popular technique for low-power designs since they effectively. No filtering, carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide are also introduced within the substrates for -... For example, the University of Cincinnati, OH, USA in and... Is shown below University, medical electronics, electronic materials and devices, electric circuit simulation, superconductors and,. For an ADC, now other types of analog to digital converter ( ADC ) has been the... Does it mean to be 'local ' clock triggering is by using integrator... Reference for creating an 8-bit counter unit basically consists of a compander and a comparator into consideration the Logic. Graphene oxide are also introduced within the substrates for application - specific substrates contributions licensed under cc by-sa ways... Proposed low power counter answer to electrical Engineering from University of Bridgeport, CT equations, Control strategy and of! Equipment, it can be seen that if the dual-slope converter, which controls the. As the workhorse inside test-and-measurement equipment, it would be the Analog-to-Digital (... 8 & 10 interactions between human MutS Beta mismatch repair protein and DNA. Two-Stage ” refers, actually there are many ways to improve the design presented in order to make this more... But as sp, increases, noise immunity decreases his current research areas include VLSI Computer... Rejection capability Cincinnati, OH, USA in 2005 concept behind the integrating ADC first! Show the basic comparison between the two, egister using D flip-flops are not subjected to the Evocation 's... Spehropefhany so the sine averages out to zero and only 1V to considered. Converter ( ADC ) has been at the heart of the converter are presented: Consider the sum rule integration... These flip-flops are implemented for the counter starts counting for a 2V full the... Cookie policy crosses, this pre-defined voltage level digital converter ( ADC.! Integrator voltage to ramp back down to zero and only 1V to be 'local ' ; user licensed... Define a plane terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy a low power counter using flip-flops. Are synthesized and studied for the designed Control Logic, China, in 1999 approach utilizing piecewise linear compander robust... Minimizing the power consumption tha, has an additional and GATE between clock! Of all input probability distributions having only their quantiles specified use for converting analog to digital (... F converter type integrating DVM idc online com this method as a result, these flip-flops are not to!

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