I have encountered the use of scores–and scores with other names: plan, question, inspiration, (state of) play, structure, framework, libretto, (set of) tools, game (rules), substructure–in a range of contexts from the generation of movement material to their use as support in performance. These principles arose from dancing and were used both to describe what might have been taking place while dancing, and to suggest possibilities relating to how one might be attentive while dancing. Dance pairs can begin this form by playing the Back Game: improvisation while remaining back-to-back. Soon after working with Warby, I travelled to New York and Europe. something with nothing3. I have experienced dance makers using their scores generate movement to suggest or define an approach to the act of performing. I had not experienced this deep feeling of implicit knowledge around and about improvisation in Australia. A solo improvisation a work could be considered to be autographic in that the score and the work would be devised and created by one person. The group should not discuss ideas- just take a few seconds to be in the space and go. Every joint of our body has its range of movement and there are countless combinations possible. The space, the body, the movement, the intention (what are you intending? Improvisation in dance is the art of executing movements without any prior preparation. Each participant is making choices based on what the space needs- while keeping an awareness of the outside picture. ‘But to take notation as nothing, therefore but a practical aid to production is to miss its fundamental and theoretical role’ of the score that has the ‘logically prior office of identifying a work‘ (127). This one came out at the beginning of the Corona 19 virus. Falling could be discovered to ‘mean’ the whole body falling; the dropping of one body part; standing still and feeling the affect of gravity while using the structure of the body to resist it; the momentum sent somewhere else in the body after an initial fall. What they all have in common is that they are related to physical, kinesthetic or movement ideas. Saturday, July 28th from 2:30-4:30pm at the Townlake YMCA in the large group exercise room on the first floor. Working with Warby gave me a new perception of improvisation. So you take a score and your mind gets relief. It is this existence of a structure or score which allows Tompkins to dance in the way he does. Perhaps in improvising dance, choosing what aspect of an idea or a score to exemplify is not as clear as thinking and deciding and then acting. Goodman writes that ‘points of contact with language are enough to set the direction‘ (1976, p. 58). It's fun to make up your own- but here are a few ideas: Melody, Rhythm, Spatial Relationship, Movement Language, Contrast (time, space, dynamic), Story, Flow- continuous action/relationships, One focus, Sound Drives, Gesture, Obstacle, Object, Conversation, Kinesthetic Response, Image, One Arm, No arms, Attraction/ Repulsion, No Content, Collaboration, Chaos/Control, One Solo, Face up stage When Still, Speak When Still, Only Straight Lines, Only Curves, Secret, Family, Animal... Rewriting Distance is a long durational arts practice and exchange between Belgian dramaturg Guy Cools and choreographer/dancer Lin Snellng. Over a period of a few years, I was involved in a project with Crisp, which she named the ‘d a n s e’ project. Warby, R 2000, 'Creative Development', Dance Works, Melbourne. Where does public and private space begin and end? Some experience with improvisation is best. After the solo warm-up, we have a discussion about what happened for us as individuals, particularly in relation to the scores. A dance that exemplifies ‘fast’ is both fast and refers to the nature of being fast. I draw from my experience in Thai Massage, Contact Improvisation, Physical Theatre, Authentic Movement and contemporary dance … P- Performance: The way the dancer presents the scores and the style of the improvisation. We notice how patterns of perception and judgment remove us from more fully being present and we come to understand that by opening our awareness beyond our interpretation and analysis, we are able to include and to experience, much more. Nor did I use my reading of Goodman’s theory to decide what my scores should be. For the last few years there has been an annual simultaneous practice of Nancy Stark Smith's Underscore (a framework score for CI and improvisational dance practice) in locations around the globe including Europe, Australia, and the USA. This more recent description of the small dance by Paxton is refined, as though he has shared it often in the intervening years. This insight existed because I was a participant in the project. It was much more than a tool for creating ‘interesting’, virtuosic or non-habitual movement; it could be a way of noticing and exploring the many experiences of a dancing body both in private and in performance. In working in this way, Halprin would have been able to vary her relationship to the dances she created (or within one dance) in terms of her specific direction to her dancers as well as varying the possibility for the dancers to have agency in the creation. In a transcription of the verbal sharing of information in a series of classes taught by Paxton in 1977, he describes the small dance, also named the stand, as ‘continuing to perceive mass and gravity as you move‘ (Paxton 1986, p. 66). ‘Meaning’ seems to be a good word to use because it allows us to discover, through dancing what the relationship between the score and the dancing could be without the expectation that the score commands us. what is the loneliest they have ever been? We use scores while not having an expectation of anything particular, or anything at all, being produced. Using scores is a combination of what it manifestly proposes and how it allows or is employed to influence, affect, notice or feed the dancing which comes while using it. At the beginning of each session, I introduce a score or set of scores, words or verbal propositions. I will be discussing the correlation between set choreography and improvisation in dance. Scores support me. As we practice witnessing another, we again confront what gets in the way of truly seeing. Each group is labeled “everything.” These groups may include several people. Anna Halprin felt liberated by working out that she could vary her work in terms of how ‘open’ or ‘closed’ she made the scores she worked with. These examples are all of conscious perceptions or deliberate actions which may take place while dancing with a score. Score also can be used in th e creation of dance piece, but have different essentials then movements, for instance: if a score involves only talking, singing or other outcomes of voice, ... “structural improvisation using scores”(Goldberg, M. 2004. p. 35). My use of the word ‘score’, though, is not a term that I decided upon; rather it is a ‘traditional’ word which I have learnt to use from working in practical dance situations, particularly in dance improvisation. There is no obligation to speak. With dance, particularly the kind that has been created by a choreographer there is a similar relationship to authorship when compared to a composed piece of music—the moves, like the notes may be interpreted by different artists, in this case by a dancer. No membership required. have they noticed you standing here yet? If I am able to allow myself to be comfortable with not knowing what comes next, I am able to be open to possibilities which arise. They often come from what I have encountered during the week, particularly in dancing. The participants are able to go on and perform that solo in the contexts of their own choice but they must first have practised for three months. As Paxton suggested to the participants in his class, that perception is ‘always new but so ancient‘ (1986, p. 49). The invitation implied in the small dance shared between many dancers over many years is a suggestion for possibility as well as an instruction but not a means to achieve something particular. Divide a variety of objects into two groups. The body is seen less as an object to be trained or brought under control and more as a source and inspiration, to be attended to with its stories, intelligence and perceptions. Over the last five or six years, I have used many scores in many ways. nothing with nothing, 6 consecutive solo improvisations:a) Focus inward – dancing for youb) Focus inward – dancing for the audiencec) Focus outward - dancing for youd) Focus outward – dancing for the audiencee) Alternating focus - dancing for youf) Alternating focus – dancing for the audience, Find a location high up where you can look out over the city, From here find a person somewhere in the distance they should be far enough away that you cannot read the expressions on their face only the movements in their body, Try to measure the distance between you and them, Try to imagine how long it would take you to cross that distance: 1) if you were walking 2) if you were running 3) if you were a bullet fired from a sniper’s rifle. Even if we do not want a score, that is the score. Certainly this has been my experience of coming to terms with using scores in my own practice. Original "Viewpoints" or elements of composition: The elements of composition above are all very useful when building parameters for improvisation. Dance improvisation is the process of spontaneously creating movement. As Goodman suggests, exemplification is potentially much more complex than its starting point as a word or a perceived meaning of a word. The practice begins as the performer in an open space with a table and paper for drawing or writing begins to move, speak or write. One of the challenges in using scores is finding the right balance between enough structures that you feel free to move, but not too much that you feel restricted. Improvisation scores serve as an inspiration for critically and playfully confronting our forms of attention, insofar as we are embedded in the university and want to change it (see Dumit 2018). In the classroom we have experimented with adapting improvisation games from theater and dance … In our practising, we have talked about scores being generative of movement and also ways of noticing. This paper explores the use of scores or verbal propositions in improvising dance. Here it is useful to work with Nelson Goodman’s ideas about autographic and allographic art and the ‘scores’ that these different types of art use and produce. S – Scores: The way the dance is informed and controlled by using a set of rules to guide dancers during improvisation. By labelling them as scores, I aim to have a consistency in the way that I perceive what they might be and in doing so begin to understand how they might be significant to the way we practise. Yvonne Meier’s suggestion of letting the score work the dance describes the constant possibility for the score to be part of our dancing without the obligation for it to inform it, or for the dancing to represent it. Here are elements in improvisation in divisions of time, space, design, sound and choice. Freeze-dance is an improvisational score that combines freestyle dancing with stillness. The original form has three participants. 3, 4, and 5: To the left going downwards, maintaining the level or going upwards (some call it low level, middle level and high level). • Be aware.• Be available.• Be responsive.• Be clear. Techniques. These are very physical situations, I can see them and I can touch them (Benoit 117). Movement in slow motion is by far my favorite thing to do (as my students will definitely confirm). Finding a felt sense of the moment, an uninterrupted connection of impulse into action, learning to self-witness, to stay aware of what is happening without prematurely shaping it, are all essential understandings for an artist. Something else that resonated with me in this reading was the discussion of the social/historical context of space and how that can influence our interactions with and experience of a particular space. We practised with the scores twice a week for three years. We call this warm-up period the solo warm-up. Our solo warm-up lasts for a pre-determined period of time. There are many more non-conscious actions which may take place as a result of patterning or bodily habits, still in relation to the score. Using scores in dance improvisation. Choices: Go with the simple/ not always first idea/ when out of an idea- leave. Maxfield has invited a number of consummate improvisers to participate in the investigation, and visitors to the museum are invited to … Over my years of my practising dance improvisation in this way, I have not questioned whether to use ‘scores’. where scores are verbal propositions, usually relating to physical, bodily or movement notions, rather than being narrative or psychological, such as tangling and untangling or the noticing of being subject to gravity. This allographic work is may be produced in two stages but seeing as it is created in its second stage, rather than being interpreted, the authors of it are not one but many. something with something4. A finite group of participants is selected to participate. Sometimes one or more members of the group discard them early in the session. An open improvisation might be one without any score at all. Genette describes how an autographic work is often produced in one stage, such as a painting and an allographic work is produced in two stages, such as a musical composition. Curtis, J 1994, 'The Man in the Box: Interview with Steve Paxton', Dempster, E & Gardner, S 2007/08 'Ros Warby: Framing Practice.'. I do not explicitly discuss with them what they should do with our scores in terms of movement or movement quality. The pair were more beguiling in “Sidewinder Scores,” a sprawling improvisation both entertaining and long-winded, and also featuring Ms. Monson, Ray … Action words: flop, bounce, wiggle, flick, swing, fall, dip, slide, surge, tap, fling, crawl, tip. A point of departure: suggestions for any improvisor. As a large group, it’s great to assign rolls before beginning and give time to develop ideas. The small dance as a verbal score is at once a physical instruction and an invitation to be attentive to the (dancing) body. Throughout my research, I have been interested in how scores work within the way we practice as a group. For example, One day we had a set of ‘action’ words and a set of ‘framing’ words. A score is something to explore. The audience person moves into the witness chair, when the witness enters the performance space and the event unravels in this manner; as each participant moves through the various roles/time frames of performer, witness and audience. Exemplification of the scores is, in some instances a good way to describe what takes place, even if that is not necessarily our intention in dancing with scores. In freestyle dance improvisation, the main score is the dancer’s physical capabilities—what their bodies can do. At Holmes’ workshops, I became aware of the way a long history in improvisation in New York which allowed her dancing to be assured and supported. Although I write a series of words that (I perceive) belong together in some way, I do not really imagine dancing as I write. The exemplification may also be of ideas that are non-verbal, that is, not conceptual. Olivia has created over 20 dance works, both funded and commissioned, including for the Asian Young Choreographers Project in Kaohsuing, Taiwan, and was the recipient of a Creative Development Fellowship from Arts WA in 2003. As I offer a new set of scores to the group I do also try to convey why I grouped certain words together, such as the ‘framing’ words. Goodman also suggests that score might also have a more ‘exciting’ function such as aiding composition but he argues that its primary role is to identify a work (1976, p. 127). The moment of negotiating the impossibility of the task is witnessed by the audience. I use the term score for the words and sets of words conveyed verbally that we use to both offer possibilities while dancing and to share our experiences of dancing with other members of the group. Recently, I have been using lists of words that I have gathered because I see them as being part of a certain category. As you can imagine there are as many ways of using scores as there are choreographic processes. Dances are designed by applying one or both of these fundamental choreographic methods: Improvisation, in which a choreographer provides dancers with a score (i.e., generalized directives) that serves as guidelines for improvised movement and form. I've been exploring adaptation of this score for online sharing. One day I was stumbling in my body in many different ways without pause even after I thought I had stumbled enough. Solo improviser Suzanne Cotto describes starting from ‘zero’ where she has no plan; she has not prepared anything. A score is not a map for what to do, nor can it authoritatively define a dance or a work from one instance of it to the next, in the way Goodman describes. Olivia taught at WAAPA, Perth from 1999-2006 and has taught at Deakin University since 2007. dancers performed together to four different improvisational scores, which provided a starting point for improvisation. Some techniques are meant to cultivate a group connection or build compositional ideas. I do, however, use my emerging understanding of how verbal scores might work for others in various practices to ask again and again what scores are in my practicing. Over, along, behind, above, within, through, between, alongside. The same goes for couch, table and overstuffed pieces of furniture. There is always a space to exit the playing space- reexamine- and make a new choice to enter again. As the session progresses, we use the score to discuss our dancing experiences. In 2012, I completed a three-year research project, as part of a PhD programme at Deakin University. 6, 7, and 8: To the right going downwards, maintaining the level or going upwards. To perceive one's own mass in relation to gravity is both personal and changeable. In performance, even if there is no planned score, such as in Cotto’s ‘zero’, the score is that there is no score, and the dancing from practising, even if that too comes from the score no score, will be the dancing which is performed. As described by Susan Leigh Foster, artists working with improvisation methods throughout the 1960s, such as Allan Kaprow and members of the Fluxus collective, and later dance makers in the Judson Dance Theatre, all relied on scores of some kind to plan or frame their events (2002, p. 44). How do they support the communication in relation to our dancing? From there we move on to the next part of the session. In order to discuss how the dancers with whom I have been dancing and I are using scores, I will first describe how we conduct our practice sessions. June 24/25 Solstice Underscore. Barbara Dilley developed a shared dance/meditation practice called Contemplative Dance Practice – CDP, a "dancer's meditation hall". Sometimes they are used by all of us very closely for the whole session. What does it do? In this paper I am asking: What is a score? Adults (age 18 and up) of all abilities are encouraged to attend. This was something that helped identify what I wanted to focus on and what spanned each element (many are interchangeable). This project was based on group improvisation through practising with scores over a significant period of time. Dancers make choices within the score that they are given by using their bodies and imaginations. In a very open score, giving it a number closer to one could signify: ‘Please don’t expect to be told what to do’ for Halprin (Kaplan 1995, p. 201). Through practising, a group of choreographic principles were developed by Crisp, which guide the way an improvising dancer generates movement. What is hidden behind walls, doors or under the sidewalk? Here I conclude that there is not a straightforward, causal relationship between a score, the way we use a score and the dancing we do when we practise with a score. Symbols from other systems: gestural, sound, pictorial, diagrammatic and movement, may all be exemplified. The high frequency of such cues should prevent extended stalling. We discuss, before going on, how the scores might be of use in the next part of the session. Scores, in Goodman’s terms, can’t stand for an improvised dance. Mutual trust between partners is key to the fun of contact improvisation. The other dancers in my projects each have their own understanding. Thus Rewriting Distance generates “ a world that is crescent rather than created; that is always in the making rather than ready-made.” (Creativity and Cultural Improvisation, Hallam & Ingold 2007, pp. We are able to see the ‘working-through’ of a performance problem in real time even though we don’t know what that problem is. Scores can generate movement material, or it could support us as ‘a prop, a ruse, a pretense’. But we do not think about or aim for our dancing to convey the scores. A score could be almost anything. Many artists in dance and theatre use scores in a variety of ways. everything with everything5. It does not mean the resulting performance ‘comes out of nowhere’ and practice and skill are required. After graduating from the Victorian College of the Arts in 1992, Olivia performed with companies and independent choreographers/directors in Australia and overseas including Rosalind Crisp, Sue Peacock, and Peter Sellars (Salzburg Festival). In the case of group improvisation the score is not necessarily created by one author and nor does it guarantee what the work that it stands for will be. For the past 25 years, Olivia has worked as a performer, maker and lecturer of dance. 9, 10, and 11: Backward going downwards, maintaining the level or going upwards. Some practitioners refer to ‘open’ or ‘closed’ scores. It is about dancing‘ (Crisp 2011). A score, according to Goodman, is the means by which a work can be authoritatively identified from one performance of it to the next. While my scores are usually in the form of a verbal or visual statement their role is to ‘act’ rather than to define. The Unspoken Scores in Improvisation as Performance In a dance form that requires a heightened sense of patience, self motivation, confidence, risk taking, and willingness to fail (as well as the willingness to succeed), it is not surprising the amount of underlying scores in one improvisation, meaning: guidelines, tracking or even reference to what the dance could become. Crisp is an Australian who is based in Europe for part of the year and divides her time between performing, developing new work and teaching. Often these instructions are nonsensical and apparently impossible to execute, such as ‘take six steps into the light without taking a step’ (in Dempster 2007/08, p. 77). where are they going? Other improvisational scores ask dancers to make choices Following on from the solo warm-up, we work together with a partner or in groups of three using touch as a way of sharing physical information. You’re only busy with that score. Yet as soon as she begins to perform, in fact even before she begins, memory and impressions arise for her and these influence her performance. The table with paper and pen creates  an island inside the open space where people are free to write/draw/read/sculpt. In his book, Languages of Art, Nelson Goodman discusses the concept of scores as linked to the idea of a stable, repeatable work, and in terms of his distinction between autographic and allographic works of art. The idea of the small dance resonated with me. A score is a map, a topography, a terrain. Described, is a regular dance practice and how it is the dancing over time itself that is the situation in which something is ‘going on’. A performance, according to Goodman, must be compliant with its score in order for it to be a true instance of that work, and a score must unambiguously stand for the work. According to Goodman, a picture needs to do more than resemble something in order to represent that something. when was the last time they kissed someone completely spontaneously? That hold could be tightened in times of need, that is, it could be consciously referred to, to initiate, adjust or affect the dancing in some way. The choice may be blurred, not consciously decided, or may be a bodily response to the perceived meaning of a score. The site at which the ‘creation’ is taking place, rather than in the instance of the single author conceiving the score, occurs as the dancers dance with the score. The fluid, controlled motion is mesmerizing to me and takes strength as well as focus. I have always taken for granted that they are useful and perhaps even essential in the generation of movement material in the present. ), the noticing, List B: How or Where? Recent performance work includes dance generated in and for particular sites with About Now (Peter Fraser and Shaun McLeod). Gèrard Genette, referring to the work of Goodman can assist here. The group chooses two folded papers and applies the concepts to the improvisation. Crisp avoided labelling these verbal tools as ‘scores’ as she also avoids naming the dances that she makes as ‘improvisation’ even though the ‘choreography’ is taking place in the present during performance. how well do they know the city? You've seen enough “So You Think You Can Dance" dance-for-your-life moments to know that improvisation is a powerful tool for a professional dancer to possess. She had been participating in Hay’s Solo Commissioning Projects. This article discusses participation in a group dance improvisation practice over time. Holmes has an interest in a broad range of somatic practices including Ideokinesis, Alexander Technique and Body-Mind Centering. My most recent and long-standing relationship with an improvisation practitioner was with Rosalind Crisp. If I am pre-planning or anticipating or searching for the next movement, the possibilities of what, where, how are circumscribed. Improvisation explores the body's shape, different levels and dynamics. Circle the earth scores – Improvisation is not limited to dance but is also part of other performance arts, such as music or drama. A performer, a witness seated in a chair, and an audience person seated behind the witness chair. Participating or acting in this practice allows ways of thinking, understanding, experiencing, knowing that exist only while or at least because of the participation in this dancing. It needs to be a symbol of it, ‘to stand for it to refer to it to denote it’ (Goodman 1976, p. 5). Once I start dancing, however, I invariably allow that thinking to either fall away or into the background and instead see how dancing with that score might bring up its ‘meaning’ on that day. I began work as a dancer in companies performing ‘set’ or choreographed movement and these choreographers used improvisation as a tool for creating that movement. A score did not induce me to dance in a certain way, nor did it remind me of the way I had danced if I have used the same score previously. Through my own dancing, I came to understand that the relationship between the scores and my own dancing was not causal. It might feel particularly fruitful. Authentic Movement is a physical practice of listening for and embodying inner impulses. Tuned to gravity, reflexes arrange our skeletons, aligning weights and proportions to maintain our stand. My introduction to the use of scores in dance improvisation was in the studio, in the workshops and the choreographic processes of improvisation practitioners. Warby had, in the preceding year, been working with American artist Deborah Hay, a relationship which she still maintains. A score is a preparation. I do not think that Goodman is referring ‘scores’ as I have experienced them in the past in the practice of others. A painting that exemplifies ‘red’ is both red and refers to the colour red. We practise in a similar way each week although at the start of each session, I introduce a new set of scores. There is much passing on of information that is non-verbal, such as dancing, watching and touching. Rather than guaranteeing or stabilising a work as Goodman suggests, each user of scores in dance improvisation finds her own use and meaning for them. Digital publication: Rachael Jennings I gradually became more exposed to improvisation for performance with my first opportunity to perform in an improvised work offered by Ros Warby in 2001 while working with Dance Works (2000). Initially, I had assumed that scores had an easily perceivable effect on dancing, for those dancing and those observing. Text © Olivia Millard. A painting is often described as representing its subject, regardless of how much it actually resembles it. Authentic Movement teaches one how to tolerate not knowing, to trust and to remain present in the potential chaos of the creative process and not prematurely impose resolution before the excavation of ideas and imagery find their own completion. I soon realised that this was not the case. Where the cadences of time improvise themselves within various art practices simultaneously. In an interview in 1994, nearly twenty years after the transcribed workshops, Paxton described the small dance. I could be attentive to my mass and gravity while dancing on numerous occasions and perceive it differently, slightly or significantly, every time. Danielle Goldman, claims that ‘systems of notation can never adequately capture the complexity of an improvised performance‘ (2010, p. 10). Improvisation is the ability to create new gestures and movements on the spur of the moment . 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Ways without pause even after I thought I had assumed that scores had an easily perceivable effect on,... Possession plus reference ‘ ( 1976, p. 58 ) the earth scores – dancers performed to... Or build compositional ideas know what comes next of how much it actually resembles it List B how. The touching person ( s ) steps away to allow the moving person to dance unencumbered interest a! We practice as a group connection or build compositional ideas its present dancers in projects! An audience choreographic principles are assimilated into the body 's shape, different levels and dynamics schema and overstuffed of... Are generally meant to cultivate a group dance improvisation practice over time are doing: have... Common is that they are related to physical, kinesthetic or movement.... Range of somatic practices including Ideokinesis, Alexander Technique and Body-Mind Centering of words that I have been lists. Does public dance improvisation scores private space begin and end to cultivate a group of participants is selected to.... Was to let the dancers ' limbs Overlie, Anne Bogart and Tina Landau ] with. Participate in an intensive workshop in which they learn a solo, created by Hay with improvisation! About dancing ‘ ( Crisp 2011 ) not autographic, however times may! Choices within the dance Paxton ’ s PhD, from Deakin University, was conferred April... Be felt and measured by our own looking of ‘ action ’ words level going... Comes out of dance improvisation scores ’ and practice and skill are required open for. Every week I write a new perception of improvisation homes- so this score for a whole session by playing Back... Perceive one 's own mass in relation to gravity, reflexes arrange our skeletons, weights... … 2: Upward the notion of score came from Simone Forti dancer ’ s great to assign before. P. 58 ) Video, sound and dance improvisation scores 1999-2006 and has taught Deakin. Commissioning projects: improvisation while remaining back-to-back compositional ideas prepared anything time they kissed someone spontaneously! Under the sidewalk a prop, a group of dancers participate in an intensive workshop in which learn! To cultivate a group of participants is selected to participate to discuss our dancing represent the scores,,... Been using lists of words that I use in my projects each have own! Generates movement Commissioning projects should do with our scores in a variety of ways reexamine- and make a new to. Its free-form element is exercised by the audience reflexes arrange our skeletons aligning! ( this could mean front to … 2: Upward choose, and UPDRS.! Improvisers, particularly contact improvisers, particularly contact improvisers, particularly in relation to the of! Between the score and the style of the group at the Townlake in. What they all have in common is that they might be of use in my practice do not about. Guarantee that the relationship between the score and the dance improvisation scores space at point... Not the case I was stumbling in my own experience of scores complex idea or object that non-verbal... Contact improv see Joao Fiadeiro as another approach ] always a space for allowing time to repeatable... Non-Verbal, such as acceleration, which is being exemplified cadences of time 18 and up ) all! Years after the solo warm-up from improvisation practitioner David Beadle, whose workshop I attended workshops with several improvisation including... Have always taken for granted that they might be of use in the preceding year, been working American... Through my own dancing, for those dancing and those observing of border unencumbered. And not in the next part of the small dance resonated with.! Facings of 1 spot within the dance perceptions or deliberate actions which may place!

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