Diocletian understood that the huge Roman Empire could be (and often was) taken over by any general who chose to assassinate the emperor. History. He also built himself a splendid palace at Split and perhaps his crowning achievement was to retire there and live out his days in peace. By the late 3rd century, the Empire became so far-flung that Diocletian decided to share it between four emperors. 1 Answers. Once Diocletian split the empire in two, which side did he choose to rule? Only by de-centralising the government to places nearer the extremities could the Emperor create an administration to deal with the hordes of barbarians continually assaulting the outlying provinces of the empire. But as the geographical centre of a vast empire that had spread east and west to uncontrollable limits, it could not retain its capital status. Today, of course, we call it Istanbul. Each Emperor would have a second-in-command, called a Caesar, to help him. Among the complicated manoeuvres we must watch those of Constantine, marching south from York, for he was to be the ultimate victor. Thus were all the great traditions of Greek and Roman culture swept aside in favour of Eastern absolutism. In A.D. 284, Diocletian became emperor. Constantine divided his empire between his three sons in his old age. The city would preserve all its 1,000 years of lustre, all its moral and spiritual traditions and all its grandeur. In 303, the Emperors Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius issued a series of edicts rescinding Christians' legal rights and demanding that they comply with traditional religious practices. Licinius surrendered and though at first promising to spare him, Constantine had him murdered a year later in 325. He decided that the only thing to do was to actually break the empire into two pieces. For all his Christianity, Constantine lived like Diocletian, in the style of an oriental monarch. What was the second great awakening. The Huns. The 2 Augustus would be the “senior” emperors. Diocletian's original given name was Διοκληϛ (Diocles), which is a very common Greek first name. Diocletian had built what has been described as, if not a new house for the empire, at least an emergency shelter. Click card to see definition He was convinced the empire was too big for one person to govern. The empire was eventually split into eastern and western halves between his successors. Diocletian divided the empire into four regions each with its own emperor to help bring stability to the empire. Tetrarchy refers to the establishment by the Roman Emperor Diocletian of a 4-part division of the empire. Murder was not new to Constantine. Each province had its own emperor. Diocletian's daring experiment paid off handsomely. However, things did not run as smoothly as he had hoped. He introduced a new tax system and reformed the coinage. He was not by any means the only one. He decided that the Empire was too large for one man to rule, and introduced the "Tetrachy", or "Rule of Four", naming his lieutenant Maximianus as Ceasar and making him ruler of the Western Empire. There was a time when the Roman Empire was really large that it was already a bit hard to control. The two armies met at the gates of Rome. “I am also a god.”. Diocletian split … Then he began to call it New Rome. Upon his head he wore the crown of an Eastern king – a diadem representing the rays of the sun, pagan lord of the gods. This is probably one of the reasons why it split, it lacked the type of leadership that it used to have. He had started life there in obscure circumstances – his father was said to have been a freed slave – but driving energy, force of personality and a genius for administration carried him up through a career in the army. Where did outside … He found, like Diocletian, that one-man rule was no answer to the marauding raids of the Persians in the East and the barbarians foraging across the Rhine and the Danube in the West. In due time one of them was slain in battle and another was murdered, leaving the third, Constantius, in sole charge to grapple with the recurring problem – that the vast empire could not be ruled by one man. He said an emotional farewell to his soldiers and formally divested himself of his imperial purple cloak in an abdication ceremony at Nicomedia and Maximian reluctantly resigned the same day in Milan. This neatly fulfilled a prediction that Diocletian would become emperor on the day he killed a boar (aper in Latin). His decision was that Rome should no longer be the empire’s capital. Books were burned, property confiscated and Christians were banned from all public appointments. © 2005-2021 Look and Learn - All rights reserved, J R R Tolkien, the Oxford professor who created Middle Earth, Juan Peron’s bullet-strewn path to power in Argentina, Diocletian split the Roman Empire in two and declared himself a god. To maintain control and stability. By 293 A.D., Diocletian decided to go a step further and resolve the issue of succession once and for all. All his youth had been spent reading Homer and Plato, a task far removed from stemming the barbarian hordes who were massing on the Empire’s Western boundaries ready for a great assault. Constantius had to find a colleague to rule in the West, as his forebears had done, and the man he chose was Julian, who, at 25, was more of a student of literature than a soldier. He had scarcely come to power when he made an unexpected decision—to share the throne with a colleague of his choice. Constantine wasted no time. Diocletian (/ ˌ d aɪ. Which leader gained fame and notoriety for his attacks against the Roman Empire? Diocletian chose the city of Nicomedia (modern day's Izmit, Turkey) to be the capital of his Eastern Roman Empire, whereas Maximian picked Milan to be the capital of his Western Roman Empire. Why did Emperor Diocletian take control of the eastern part of the Roman Empire? Why did the Diocletian decide to split the empire. Thus, seven years later, in 293, Diocletian and Maximian decided the time was ripe to appoint two more emperors, each holding the rank of Caesar , to help rule the empire. Diocletian was the first good administrator the empire had had for years. 3. Issuing out from that city to meet him came the man who was now his principal rival, Maxentius. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus was sixty years old or so, had been Roman emperor for twenty years and had had enough. Many groups fought for their share of the pie - but it was 'winner takes all'. Why? Diocletian solved that problem in the way of the Eastern ancient rulers. . Whichever was the case, Constantine issued at Nicomedia in 313 an edict proclaiming full toleration for all religions. 100. These help us understand and improve your and other users’ experience with the website, and make it easy for you to share pages. The man was Diocletian, of Dalmatia, who was the new Emperor. At a stroke he severed the Roman world in two: henceforth there would be two empires with two capitals. © Copyright 2021 History Today Ltd. Company no. By doing so he began the process that ultimately led to the split of the Empire into two and the formation of the Byzantine Empire. This, of course, caused significant political upheaval; it was virtually impossible to unite the empire. He decided it would be easier to control the vast empire if it was split into smaller parts. Split - or Spalato - is one of the most extraordinary places of the later Roman world, being no less than the palace which the Emperor Diocletian began building in 293 … The black mark against the “divine” emperor was his cruel persecution of the Christians. His soldiers at York rushed out on to their parade ground and, as one man, saluted his son with a great shout: That cry of “Hail, Emperor!” was enough to decide young Constantine that the throne of the empire was within his grasp. How could he, he wondered, prop up this sagging empire? Because there was only one top job: the emperor. Despite their advanced network of roads and bureaucratic mechanisms, word simply could not travel fast enough for the Empire to grow and change as a whole. When Licinius’s power began to increase rapidly Constantine provoked a quarrel that led to a new civil war. You can read more detail in our cookie policy to help you decide. When the Christians hit back in rebellion, the persecution against them was tightened. When Numerian was found dead in mysterious circumstances, his principal commander, Aper, was believed to have murdered him to seize power. The fate of the Western world lay squarely in his hands . At the urging of the caesar Galerius, in 303 Diocletian began the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, resulting in the destruction of churches and the torture and execution of Christians who refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods. 500. His attacks on the Christians were bound to be widely felt, for now Christianity was widespread throughout the empire. Diocletian kept the wealthy Eastern province for himself and gave the weaker and poorer province to another emperor. In 284 CE, Emperor Diocletian decided that the empire was too large and should be split into an Eastern and Western province. The first split came in CE 285 when the emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman empire had become too large to be effectively ruled by one man. Roman Empire under the tetrarchy, showing the territories of the four tetrarchs: Diocletian, Galerius, Maximian, and Constantius. The split of the Empire was due in part to the difficulty of governing an empire as large as the Roman’s with any kind of continuity. Attila the Hun. In the resultant struggle Licinius came off worst, but he was not decisively beaten. Constantine’s vision before battle with Maxentius at the Gates of Rome, by. He divided the Empire into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. Diocletian had split the empire into twelve “dioceses”, with each of four “tetrarchs” running three of them apiece. At a stroke he severed the Roman world in two: henceforth there would be two empires with two capitals. “Henceforth I am more than just the Emperor,” he declared. What outside forces threatened Rome's sovereignty? Within a year Constantius Chlorus died in Britain. There would also be two emperors. 1556332. In 285 AD, Emperor Diocletian decided that the Roman Empire was too big to manage. They again were self-made army men from obscure backgrounds and the arrangement worked, at least for as long as Diocletian was there. Gravity Why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire? The result, of course, was more civil war. Yet now he had positively decided to become a Christian. For eight years this persecution was kept up, and in that time Diocletian decided to end his princely reign in an unusual way for Roman emperors – he decided to retire. He decided to retire and grow vegetables in his home town of Split, on the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic in Croatia. Carinus was assassinated the following year and Diocletian became master of the Roman world. LOGIN TO VIEW ANSWER. Describe Diocletian's reform. Why did Diocletian decide to split the empire? It was too big for one man to manage and he well knew that the army was thoroughly out of hand. When no one could decide what its name was they called it simply Constantinople – the city of Constantine. Over the next hundred years or so, Rome would be reunited, split into three parts, and split in two again. They were the Western Empire, ruled from Milan, and the Eastern Empire, ruled from Nicomedia (now the … Taxes went up, people prospered and Christians were persecuted as a subversive foreign sect. It commanded a view over two great seas and was an ideal trading port. If you look at a map of Europe you can now see how Rome had a man capable of making all important decisions in four stategically important areas which enabled him to travel rapidly to any trouble spot in his territory. Although he came from the army’s ranks, Diocletian was not, properly speaking, a soldier. The following year, Diocletian promoted Maximian to be his equal, so both men held the title of Augustus and ruled the split Roman Empire side-by-side. It worked for a short while until Constantine the Great united the empire once again under his leadership. This edict marked a great moment in the story of the world, for it was the first time in which the principle of freedom of conscience was recognised. The Empire had become too large to rule effectively. The soldiers now acclaimed Diocletian as emperor and he drew his sword and killed Aper there and then. Submit your answer. There, while waiting for the battle to begin Constantine had a vision. . The Greek word tetrachia, which means government by four people, is the word we use to define this administrative system. The effect was to divide the empire into western and eastern spheres, each with its own Augustus. Maximian’s Caesar was stationed at Treves on the Rhine and Diocletian’s at Sirmium, near present-day Belgrade. His toga and his sandals were studded with precious stones; incense burned in his presence and anyone to whom he granted an audience was obliged to fall, bowing, to the floor. The outer provinces were pretty much doing whatever they wanted. Diocletian had built what has been described as, if not a new house for the empire, at least an emergency shelter. It was held at Nice, and from it came the Nicene Creed, which is used by the Catholic Church at Mass. Diocletian would rule the Eastern Empire and Maximian, his colleague, would rule the Western Empire. One day he thought he had the answer – he would change the capital to a place which was the centre of the eastern trade and beyond the reach of barbarians. They were the Western Empire, ruled from Milan, and the Eastern Empire, ruled from Nicomedia (now the town of Izmit in Turkey). The emperor, of course, was far too ambitious to allow even a compromise situation to last. The Roman emperor abdicated on May 1st, 305. The next day Constantine was master of Rome. For some years the new religion had been divided over Church doctrine, which was an important subject for inquiring Greek-Roman minds. This edited article about Ancient Rome originally appeared in Look and Learn issue number 627 published on 19 January 1974. The army was brought under control, the barbarians kept at bay and the imperial administration centralized under a swarm of bureaucrats. He picked an old comrade named Maximian, also of humble origins, and installed him in Milan as co-emperor while Diocletian established himself in the east, at Nicomedia in Anatolia. 1 Answers. ... Why did Emperor Diocletian split the empire in two? Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a cavalry commander of the Emperor Carus's army. Diocletian’s successors soon fell out, but apart from a brief, unsuccessful intervention in affairs in 308, he lived on quietly at Split until his death. Diocletian was the first good administrator the empire had had for years. He routed the army of Maxentius who, with many of his soldiers, was drowned in the River Tiber. Constantine was still master only of the Western Empire; in the East the formidable figure of Licinianis Licinius reigned. History. Diocletian began by destroying the churches and forbidding Christian gatherings. ə ˈ k l iː ʃ ən /; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. It was made by a man who was not even a Roman, a man who, in that pedigree-conscious empire, had origins which were veiled in obscurity. The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. He had put to death the most intelligent of his own sons and one of his grandsons, and had had his own wife murdered in her bath. It was soon clear that what worked for Diocletian was not going to work for anyone else. he believed that it had become too large for one person to rule. The Empire would be split into 4 parts (picture below) There would be 4 emperors- 2 Augustus and 2 Caesars. Diocletian decided to fix this by creating a new system of governance that went like this. Galerius, who succeeded Diocletian as augustus in 305, continued the persecution until 311. His vision before the battle, we are told, was why almost immediately he issued an edict of toleration for the Christians. The emperor was succeeded by his Caesar, Galerius, a Dacian; while Maximian, the Western Emperor who had to retire, too, was followed by Constantius Chlorus. Emperor Diocletian decided to retire in April 305, assuming that the system for sharing imperial authority that he had set up would continue along the lines he had set up. He also built himself a splendid palace at Split and perhaps his crowning achievement was to retire there and live out his days in peace. Asked By adminstaff @ 21/11/2019 03:48 PM. But that was the task with which Julian, pale-faced, bookish and youthful, was now charged. It was not feasible anymore to check and monitor all of the provinces. Diocletian secured the empire’s borders and purged it of all threats to his power. In it he saw a Cross, the symbol of Christ, and on it the words “In hoc signo vinces” – “By this sign thou shalt conquer.”. A single swift and irreversible decision changed completely the story of the Roman Empire and with it the story of the world. With two emperors, the empire was effectively split into East (ruled by Diocletian) and West (ruled by Maximian) but the demands on the co-emperors continued to be a major issue. Having fought for so many years to achieve his ambition of one-man rule. He separated and enlarged the empire’s civil and military services, and reorganized the empire’s provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. Today, where is the center of the Catholic Church? At first he called it Anthusa, which was the ancient cult name of Rome. Constantine made his workmen toil ceaselessly to build his city. Thanks to trade and taxes from its vast domains, Rome was the most magnificent city globally, studded with the significant buildings of emperors keen to … Where the system might have gone wrong was that the other three men might have posed a serious threat to Diocletian’s total power. The place he chose was a town on a windy headland called Byzantium. In fact, it was more probably because Constantine needed the Christians on his side to continue the struggle against rival claimants to his throne. It was far too large to be ruled by just one person, so one of the first actions taken by the new emperor was to split the empire into two parts. In the most significant reform, he divided the empire into 2 halfs. The meaning of the name is uncertain, but διοικεω means "to rule" and the first part of the word (DIO) has the sense of a god or a lord. In 293 each of them was given a Caesar as a right-hand man, Galerius in the east and in the west Constantius Chlorus, who ran Gaul and Britain and was the father of the future Constantine the Great. . We would like your permission to use third party cookies. Faced with inflation, he fixed the maximum selling prices of fruit, vegetables and consumer goods – in much the same way as the present British government is combating the inflationary spiral. Diocletian split the empire into eastern and western halves in order to make governing easier. He did so in truly godly style laying down his diadem and sceptre at the foot of a statue on a hill near Nicomedia on May 1, 305. Asked By adminstaff @ 21/11/2019 03:48 PM. He split the empire into West and East, keeping the eastern part for himself because it was richer in goods and trade. Related Questions in History. By 284, approaching forty, Diocletian held senior rank in the force the Emperor Carinus sent against the Persians, led by the emperor’s brother and co-ruler Numerian. And he was further troubled because his own Christians were squabbling among themselves over the validity of the Nicene Creed. Posted in Ancient History, Famous battles, Historical articles, History, Politics, Religion, War on Friday, 3 February 2012. Licinius then agreed to renounce his traditional right to name his successor, thus leaving the twin empires to Constantine and his descendants. The Roman Empire was soon left in no doubt about Diocletian’s divinity. the east was wealthier than the west, so he decided to control this area, and left a different person to … To settle the disputes, Constantine called the first general Church council. The empire was too great for one man to administer; nearly every week, either in Africa, In the summer of the year 306 Rome suddenly found herself again with an embarrassment of emperors – no fewer than six men were claiming the imperial title. Diocletian understood that a major problem in ruling a territory of the extent of the Roman Empire was its immense size. The new religion was obviously totally opposed to a government run by an Eastern “god,” and Diocletian was not prepared to be disobeyed. And we must say that he did really well, considering all the problems and the legacy he had to uphold. The 2 Caesars would be “junior” emperors and under the command of the “senior” Augustus Emperor Diocletian was looking for a way to fix this and other problems. He believed that theempire had grown too large and too complex for one ruler to handle. The following year, Diocletian promoted Maximian to be his equal, so both men held the title of Augustus and ruled the split Roman Empire side-by-side. In 312 he had occupied the valley of the River Po with 50,000 legionaires and from there he set out for Rome. At Split Diocletian enjoyed himself gardening and when Maximian returned to the political arena and wrote to suggest that Diocletian should do the same, he replied to the effect that if you could see my cabbages you would understand the impossibility of the suggestion. the Eastern side. At the first excuse he made war on Licinius and defeated his rival outright. One piece would be the western empire, based in Rome. 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