This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The port was attacked by Republican aircraft, though anti-aircraft fire from the warships drove them off. These were either to break out and seek refuge in Buenos Aires, where the Argentine government would intern the ship, or to scuttle the ship in the Plate estuary. This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [26], Admiral Graf Spee's Arado floatplane located the merchant ship Doric Star: Langsdorff fired a shot across her bow to stop the ship. Engine problems forced a series of repairs culminating in a complete overhaul at the end of 1943, after which the ship remained in the Baltic. In March 1935, she sailed as far as the Caribbean and South American waters. Between August 1936 and May 1937, the ship conducted three patrols off Spain. [lower-alpha 1] In 1940, she was renamed Lützow, after the Admiral Hipper class heavy cruiser Lützow was handed over to the Soviet Union. A third struck her superstructure behind the port-side aircraft crane. [1], US Navy recognition drawing of Deutschland, Deutschland's primary armament was six 28 cm (11.0 in) SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple gun turrets, one forward and one aft of the superstructure. The Admiral Hipper-class cruiser Lützow was designated for sale to the Soviet Navy, and it was hoped that the usage of her name for Deutschland would hide the transaction. [30] Lützow returned to Germany for repairs, which lasted until the end of October. Even before the outbreak of WW2, 21 U-boats and the pocket-battleships Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland had sailed into the Atlantic Ocean to wait for a conflict with Great Britain and France in this large sea area. At a cruising speed of 18.69 knots (34.61 km/h; 21.51 mph), the ship had a range of 16,300 nautical miles (30,200 km; 18,800 mi). German torpedo boats attacked the submarine and drove her off. Deutschland (later renamed Lützow), Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee were simply termed panzerschiffe (armored ships) by the Germans, but they were known to their opponents by the far more evocative term Pocket Battleships. Between 18 April and 17 May 1939, she conducted another cruise into the Atlantic, stopping in the ports of Ceuta and Lisbon. [6] Deutschland was powered by four sets of MAN 9-cylinder double-acting two-stroke diesel engines. Langsdorff decided not to flee from the British ships, and ordered his ship to battle stations and to close at maximum speed. In March, Lützow moved to Altafjord, where she experienced problems with her diesel engines. Unable to steer, she was towed back to port and decommissioned for repairs, which lasted for nearly a year. A LUCKY SHIP The Germans called her their “lucky ship”—the heavily gunned, heavily armoured Admiral Scheer, sister ship of the ill-fated Graf Spee and the Deutschland. Armed with six 28 cm (11 in) guns in two triple gun turrets, Admiral Graf Spee and her sisters were designed to outgun any cruiser fast enough to catch them. [17] Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, the commander in chief of the Kriegsmarine, made the decision to rename the ship, for several reasons. The pocket battleships had an eventful career with the Kreigsmarine. [34] Lützow was then ordered to break off the attack on the convoy and reinforce Admiral Hipper. [29] Kummetz's plan was to divide his force in half; he would take Admiral Hipper and three destroyers north of the convoy to attack it and draw away the escorts. A hit in the bow would also have negatively affected her seaworthiness in the heavy seas of the North Atlantic. [8], Deutschland on non-intervention patrol in 1938, In May 1937, the ship was docked in the port of Palma on the island of Majorca, along with several other neutral warships, including vessels from the British and Italian navies. [10], On 24 August 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland, Deutschland set sail from Wilhelmshaven, bound for a position south of Greenland. By this time, Admiral Graf Spee had cruised for almost 30,000 nautical miles (56,000 km; 35,000 mi) and needed an engine overhaul. [28] Based on that information, Langsdorff decided to head for the seas off Montevideo. This ship became a legend with its own demise. [10], Severe weather in the North Atlantic hampered Deutschland's raiding mission, though she did tie down several British warships assigned to track her down. [38] A crowd of 20,000 watched as the scuttling charges were set; the crew was taken off by an Argentine tug and the ship was scuttled at 20:55. [17] In 1940, the ship underwent a major overhaul, during which a raked clipper bow was installed to improve the sea-keeping qualities of the ship. [37] In the aftermath of the scuttling, the ship's crew were taken to Argentina, where they were interned for the remainder of the war. [35] British naval intelligence worked to convince Langsdorff that vastly superior forces were concentrating to destroy his ship, if he attempted to break out of the harbor. [13] By this time, Deutschland had moved south to hunt in the Bermuda-Azores sea lane. She continued in this role until 4 May,[5] by which time she had expended her main battery ammunition. Deutschland was ordered by the Reichsmarine from the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel as Ersatz Preussen, as a replacement for the old battleship Preussen. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 80 mm thick sides. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 80 mm thick sides. As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. Her anti-aircraft battery originally consisted of three 8.8 cm (3.5 in) L/45 guns, though in 1935 these were replaced with six 8.8 cm (3.5 in) L/78 guns. By 10 May 1942, the ship was finally pronounced ready for action. [11] On the return voyage from Spain, Admiral Graf Spee stopped in Great Britain to represent Germany in the Coronation Review at Spithead for King George VI on 20 May. [14], On 11 September, while still transferring supplies from Altmark, Admiral Graf Spee's Arado floatplane spotted the British heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland approaching the two German ships. A second shell struck the ship's deck and penetrated the upper and main armored decks; starting a fire in the cruiser's hospital and operating theater, killing two soldiers and severely wounding six others. Deutschland Wehrmacht Oberkommando (1985) (in German). Save money and get a big ship POCKET battleship James Taylor has smashed Kevin Pietersen's claims that he is too small for international cricket over the fence ahead of his return to the big stage. The ship had a design displacement of 12,630 t (12,430 long tons; 13,920 short tons) and a full load displacement of 14,290 long tons (14,520 t),[1] though the ship was officially stated to be within the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limit of the Treaty of Versailles. Langsdorff assumed this to be the escort for a convoy mentioned in the documents recovered from Tairoa. By the end of the war, her anti-aircraft battery had again been reorganized, consisting of six 4 cm (1.6 in) guns, ten 3.7 cm guns, and twenty-eight 2 cm guns. Twenty-four of the convoy's thirty-five transports were sunk. [21] The delay had, however, allowed enough time for the Norwegian government and royal family to flee Oslo. She ran aground during a planned attack on convoy PQ 17, which necessitated another return to Germany for repairs. The formula adopted was six 11 inch guns in two triple turrets on a cruiser size hull with cruiser level protection and diesel propulsion for extended range. [21], Shortly before midnight on the night of 8 April, Group 5, with Blücher in the lead, passed the outer ring of Norwegian coastal batteries. Repairs were completed by March 1941, Lützow returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union. [2] The ship was launched on 30 June 1934; at her launching, she was christened by the daughter of Admiral Maximilian von Spee, the ship's namesake. [16] In the course of her raiding mission, she sank only two vessels and captured a third. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. Captain Robert Sherbrooke, the British escort commander, left two destroyers to cover the convoy while he took the remaining four to pursue Admiral Hipper. [18] At this time, she was re-rated as a heavy cruiser and renamed Lützow. Here, she would be ready to attack Allied merchant traffic in the event of a general war following the attack on Poland. About the … Deutschland was the lead ship of her class of heavy cruisers (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [22], On 22 October, Admiral Graf Spee encountered and sank the steamer Trevanion. Kummetz then turned back north to draw the destroyers away. This battleship / Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff", nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British. On 3 July, the force left their anchorages, and in heavy fog Lützow and three destroyers ran aground and suffered significant damage. [15] The cruiser then fired 30 rounds from her 28 cm and 15 cm guns and two torpedoes at the cargo ship, which broke up and sank. [33] Most of the hits scored by the British cruisers caused only minor structural and superficial damage but the oil purification plant, which was required to prepare the diesel fuel for the engines, was destroyed. [2] Radar consisted of a FMG G(gO) "Seetakt" set;[5][a] Admiral Graf Spee was the first German warship to be equipped with radar equipment. In 1938 Jane's Fighting Ships stated the Deutschland-class "[a]re officially rated as 'Armoured Ships' (Panzerschiffe) and popularly referred to as 'Pocket Battleships'. The Pocket Battleship Branch is a sub-branch alternative to the nominal Battleships and are initially just heavily armored Heavy Cruisers. Admiral Graf Spee returned to the Atlantic between 17 and 26 November to refuel from Altmark. The prize crew recovered secret documents containing shipping route information. While replenishing his fuel supplies, Langsdorff ordered superfluous equipment transferred to the Altmark; this included several of the ship's boats, flammable paint, and two of her ten 2 cm anti-aircraft guns, which were installed on the tanker. Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger, eds (1980). [5][lower-alpha 2], Deutschland spent the majority of 1933 and 1934 conducting training maneuvers;[7] early speed trials in May 1933 indicated that a top speed of 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph) was preferable, but the ship comfortably reached 28 kn (52 km/h; 32 mph) on speed trials in June. Machinery comprised of twelve marine-type boilers powering three triple expansion steam engines, which turned three sh… [11] Deutschland was ordered to strictly observe prize rules, which required raiders to stop and search ships for contraband before sinking them, and to ensure that their crews are safely evacuated. Langsdorff ordered both vessels to depart at high speed, successfully evading the British cruiser. [1], The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21.0 in) deck-mounted torpedo launchers placed on her stern. Repairs necessary to make the ship seaworthy were expected to take up to two weeks. Authenticast Comet Metal Prinz Euben Class Battleship Circa 1940's. The next day, she met with Altmark and transferred 140 prisoners from Doric Star and Tairoa. [8] After joining the fleet, Admiral Graf Spee became the flagship of the German Navy. On 18 December, the ship, with only Langsdorff and 40 other men aboard, moved into the outer roadstead to be scuttled. [38], The wreck was partially broken up in situ in 1942–1943, though parts of the ship were visible for some time after; the wreck lies at a depth of only 11 m (36 ft). Raised by the Soviet Navy in 1947, she was subsequently sunk as a target in the Baltic. In protest, Raeder resigned; Hitler replaced him with Admiral Karl Dönitz, who persuaded Hitler to rescind the order to dismantle the Kriegmarine's surface ships. The Norwegians, including those manning the guns at the Oscarsborg Fortress were on alert, however. She eventually landed her troop complement in Verle Bay, after which she used her operational 28 cm guns to provide fire support. [23], The damage Lützow sustained prompted the Kriegsmarine to order her to return to Germany for repairs. At 07:25, Admiral Graf Spee scored a hit on Ajax that disabled her aft turrets. Convinced by false reports of superior British naval forces approaching his ship, Hans Langsdorff, the commander of the ship, ordered the vessel to be scuttled. The supply ship Westerwald was assigned to support Deutschland during the operation. He knew that although Uruguay was neutral, the government was on friendly terms with Britain and if he allowed his ship to be interned, the Uruguayan Navy would allow British intelligence officers access to the ship. [4] The ship was commissioned into the Reichsmarine on 1 April 1933. Pocket battleships of the Deutschland class : Deutschland/Lützow, Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee Koop , Gerhard , Schmolke , Klaus-Peter The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. The RAF made another failed attack two days later, but on 16 April, a force of eighteen Lancasters scored a single hit and several near misses on Lützow with Tallboy bombs in the Kaiserfahrt. Hitler saw the battle of the surface raiders in the Barents Sea as the perfect mission for success. She briefly returned to Norway, but by the end of September 1943, a thorough overhaul was required. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. [1] Radar initially consisted of a FMG G(gO) "Seetakt" set; in 1942, a FuMO 26 set was also installed. [7], The ship conducted a series of long distance training voyages into the Atlantic in 1935. [25] The rest of Group 5 remained in Norway,[26] so Lützow cruised at top speed to avoid submarines. While en route, the British submarine HMS Triton attacked the flotilla, though her torpedoes missed. In respect of the Versailles Treaty as amended by the 1922 Washington Agreement, German naval architects had apparently put a quart into a pint pot. [27] Doric Star was able to send out a distress signal before she was sunk, which prompted Harwood to take his three cruisers to the mouth of the River Plate, which he suspected might be Langsdorff's next target. Admiral Graf Spee was 186 meters (610 ft) long overall and had a beam of 21.65 m (71 ft) and a maximum draft of 7.34 m (24 ft 1 in). The Deutschland-class battleships were similar in design to the earlier Braunschweig-class battleships, and had general dimensions of 127.6 meters long, 22.2 meters beam, and 8.21 meters draught. [11], On 5 October, she found and sank the British transport ship Stonegate, though not before the freighter was able to send a distress signal informing vessels in the area of Deutschland's presence. Four days later Admiral Graf Spee's Arado located Booth Steam Ship Co's cargo ship Clement off the coast of Brazil. Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert; Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). [14] The same day, she stopped the neutral Danish steamer Kongsdal, though when it became apparent that she was headed for a neutral port, the prisoners from Lorentz W Hansen were placed aboard her and she was allowed to proceed. The ship conducted five non-intervention patrols during the Spanish Civil War in 1936–1938, and participated in the Coronation Review of King George VI in May 1937. Force G was reinforced by the light cruisers Ajax and Achilles; Harwood detached Cumberland to patrol the area off the Falkland Islands while his other three cruisers patrolled off the River Plate. The ship was nominally under the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limitation on warship size imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, though with a full load displacement of 16,020 long tons (16,280 t), she significantly exceeded it. Four men were wounded. [32], As a result of battle damage and casualties, Langsdorff decided to put into Montevideo, where repairs could be effected and the wounded men could be evacuated from the ship. [12] Hitler hoped to secure a negotiated peace with Britain and France after he overran Poland, and he therefore did not authorize Deutschland to begin her raiding mission against British and French shipping until 26 September. There are a total of [ 3 ] WW2 German Pocket Battleships (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. Admiral Graf Spee fired on her again, scored more hits, and forced Exeter to withdraw again, this time with a list to port. The German pocket battleships, or Panzerschiffe, struck fear into every navy in the world when they were developed and deployed in the 1930's. Admiral Graf Spee had fired much of her ammunition in the engagement with Harwood's cruisers. Long range was critical, as Germany had no overseas bases. The ship's wounded men were also evacuated in Gibraltar for treatment. At a cruising speed of 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph), the ship could steam for 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi). [5], Deutschland was 186 meters (610 ft) long overall and had a beam of 20.69 m (67.9 ft) and a maximum draft of 7.25 m (23.8 ft). The torpedo destroyed Lützow's stern, causing it to collapse and nearly fall off, and blew off her steering gear. She rendezvoused with Admiral Scheer to take on additional doctors before proceeding to Gibraltar where the dead were buried with full military honors. Her anti-aircraft battery originally consisted of three 8.8 cm (3.5 in) L/45 guns, though in 1935 these were replaced with six 8.8 cm L/78 guns. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. The British cruisers turned toward Lützow and came under fire from both German cruisers. Lützow's forward gun turret was hit by one of the 15 cm rounds, which disabled the center gun and damaged the right barrel. [7] Deutschland participated in fleet maneuvers in German waters in early 1936. [9] The salvage rights were purchased from the German Government by the British, for £14,000, using a Montevideo engineering company as a front. The ship was partially broken up in situ, though part of the ship remained visible above the surface of the water. Additionally, the Chesneau book has scrap view drawings and side view profiles of … [36] The water was shallow enough that her main deck was still 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above water, permitting her use as a stationary gun battery against advancing Soviet forces. [24] On 15 November, the ship sank the tanker MV Africa Shell, and the following day, she stopped an unidentified Dutch steamer, though did not sink her. PRE-WAR. [25] Despite the setback, KzS August Thiele, Lützow's commander, was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his actions during the Battle of Drøbak Sound, during which he took command of the task force after the loss of Blücher. [9], Deutschland quickly weighed anchor and left port. [22][23] Lützow was hit three times by 15 cm shells from Oscarsborg's Kopås battery, causing significant damage.[24]. Between September and December 1939, the warship sank nine vessels totaling 50,089 gross register tons (GRT), before being confronted by three British cruisers at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December. She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshavenin October 1932 an… [17], Lützow was assigned to Group 5, alongside the new heavy cruiser Blücher and the light cruiser Emden, under the command of Konteradmiral Oskar Kummetz. [10], Following the outbreak of war between Germany and the Allies in September 1939, Adolf Hitler ordered the German Navy to begin commerce raiding against Allied merchant traffic. She was joined by her newly commissioned sister ship Admiral Scheer for a cruise into the mid-Atlantic, which included a stop in Madeira. The Deutschland class armored ship were popularly called "pocket battleships". [18] Force G, commanded by Commodore Henry Harwood and assigned to the east coast of South America, comprised the cruisers Cumberland and Exeter. 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