Elle est présente au mariage secret d'Abigail et Samuel Masham, 1er baron Masham, groom of the Bedchamber du prince Georges, en 1707, sans que Sarah ne soit au courant[38]. Le roi a aussi beaucoup d'amitié pour les Marlborough ; le duc s'est battu à ses côtés lors de la guerre de Succession d'Espagne et le couple a souvent été reçu à la cour d'Hanovre pendant son exil[12]. Although the new king and queen had awarded Sarah's husband the title Earl of Marlborough, Sarah and John enjoyed considerably less favour than they had during the reign of James II. Anne meurt le 1er août 1714 au palais de Kensington. Sarah's friendship and influence with Princess Anne were widely known, and leading public figures often turned their attentions to her, hoping for favor from Anne. John Churchill la préfère finalement à Catherine Sedley, et le mariage morganatique est célébré dans l'hiver 1677. He also restored the Earl of Marlborough to all his offices and honours and exonerated him from any past accusations. [12], Although James forced Frances to give up the post because of her marriage to a Catholic, James did not forget the family. Sa richesse est si considérable qu'elle espère marier sa petite-fille, Diana, à Frédéric de Galles, avec une dot considérable de 100 000 £[69]. Durant sa vie, Sarah a rédigé vingt-six testaments, le dernier seulement quelques mois avant sa mort, et a acheté vingt-sept propriétés. Diana, princesse de Galles, descend de Sarah par sa fille Anne ; le fils d'Anne. [80] The latter rose to a height of 130 feet (40 m), complete with fine embellishments. Anne's next letter to Sarah was an exercise in chilling hostility, referring sarcastically to the "command" Sarah had given her to be silent. The new duchess was adored by the poor and less fortunate tenants on her husband's estate, whom she visited and to whom she provided assistance. Hertfordshire. [96] Weisz won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal. Lors de son accueil à la Maison de la Reine à Greenwich, il s'entretient avec eux mais ne parle pas aux tories[57]. [13] Churchill, who had previously been a lover of Charles II’s mistress, Barbara Palmer, Duchess of Cleveland, had little to offer financially, as his estates were deeply in debt. Not only was Abigail happy to give the queen the kindness and compassion that Anne had longed for from Sarah, she also never pressured the queen about politics. Anne est finalement gagnante : elle a tenu des entretiens avec les représentants des deux partis et les a priés, « les larmes aux yeux », de s'opposer au mouvement[44]. Il lui demande alors de les garder tous les deux en fonctions pendant encore neuf mois, le temps de terminer la campagne, pour qu'ils puissent se retirer honorablement. Although she could not dismiss Sarah from Anne's service, Mary responded by evicting Sarah from her court lodgings at the Palace of Whitehall. Will of John, Duke of Marlborough, National Archives at Kew, Catalogue Ref. Despite Abigail's owing her position at court to the Duchess of Marlborough, Sarah soon saw Abigail as her enemy who supplanted her in Anne’s affections when Sarah spent more and more time away from the Queen. James still retained some influence, and he ordered that both Lady Churchill and Princess Anne be placed under house arrest at Anne's residence (the Cockpit[a]) in the Palace of Whitehall. Mary II responded to this by demanding that Anne dismiss Sarah. There was also a political difference between them: Anne was a Tory (the party known as the "Church party", religion being one of Anne's chief concerns), and Sarah was a Whig (the party known to support Marlborough's wars). Modest and retiring, she promoted the Tory policies of her cousin Robert Harley. [28], In 1702, William III died, and Anne became queen. [24], Other problems also emerged. [97], She was played by Susannah York in the 1983 comedy Yellowbeard.[98]. The implication that she should publicly express her support for the Whigs offended Anne; at the service Sarah told the queen to "be quiet" after Anne continued the argument, thus offending the queen still further.[50]. L'amitié qu'elle affiche pour Abigail, et son refus obstiné de la renvoyer, met Sarah tellement en colère qu'elle fait courir le bruit que les deux femmes entretiennent une liaison[45]. Godolphin, though a great friend of Sarah's, had even considered refusing high office after Anne's accession, preferring to live quietly and away from the political side of Sarah, who as a powerful and intelligent woman he considered bossy, interfering, and presuming to tell him what to do when Marlborough was away. [47], Sarah was completely oblivious to any friendship between Anne and Abigail and was therefore surprised when she discovered that Abigail frequently saw the queen in private. William responded to the demand by offering the same sum from the Privy Purse to keep Anne dependent on his generosity. Après la mort du mari d'Anne, Georges de Danemark, en 1708, Sarah arrive à l'improviste au palais de Kensington, où elle trouve Anne auprès de la dépouille du prince. Abigail Masham a aussi joué un rôle clé dans la chute de Sarah. Sarah was kept in all of her offices – purely for the sake of her husband's position as Captain-General of the army – and the tension between the two women lingered on until early in 1711. Sarah became one of the trustees of the Marlborough estate, and she used her business sense to distribute the family fortune, including the income for her daughter Henrietta. La même année, elle essaie d'améliorer sa réputation en approuvant la publication d'une biographie intitulée An Account of the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough from her first coming to Court to the year 1710. Quand le duc se trouve hors du royaume durant la guerre de Succession d'Espagne, Sarah le tient informé des intrigues de la cour tandis qu'il lui envoie ses demandes et conseils politiques qu'elle transmet à la reine[2]. [53] The whole scenario echoed Anne's refusal to give up Sarah during the reign of William and Mary, but the threat of parliamentary interference exceeded anything tried against Anne in the 1690s.[28]. Abigail est aussi la cousine du dirigeant tory Robert Harley, plus tard premier comte d'Oxford. Sarah Churchill, daughter of Winston and Clementine, was a British actress and dancer. Leurs maris respectifs, malgré leur loyauté envers Jacques, prêtent allégeance à Guillaume d'Orange. James's first impressions were favourable, and in 1664 Sarah’s sister, Frances, was appointed maid of honour to the Duchess of York, Anne Hyde. She sent Whig reading materials to Anne in an attempt to win her over to her own preferred political party. [66] The Tories were suspected of supporting the Roman Catholic Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart. Sarah, cependant, n'aime pas être loin de l'Angleterre et se plaint souvent qu'ils soient reçus avec beaucoup d'honneur en Europe mais en disgrâce dans leur pays. A strong-willed woman, she strained her relationship with the Queen whenever they disagreed on political, court, or church appointments. Sarah est soulagée de revenir en Angleterre. Sarah was not forthcoming in this regard and frequently overpowered and dominated Anne. Sarah Churchill is portrayed by actress Rachel Weisz in the 2018 film The Favourite, which centres on the competition between the Duchess and Baroness Masham (Emma Stone) for the affections of Queen Anne (Olivia Colman). Le duc est emprisonné à la tour de Londres[16]. Winston Churchill descend de Sarah par sa fille Anne ; le fils d'Anne est le. Elle est enterrée au palais de Blenheim aux côtés de son mari dont le corps est exhumé de l'abbaye de Westminster[81]. [46] She was present at Abigail's secret wedding, in 1707, to Samuel Masham, groom of the bedchamber to Prince George, without Sarah’s knowledge. Le manoir de Wimbledon est détruit par les flammes en 1785 et Holywell House, à St Albans, la maison où est née Sarah, démolie en 1827. Anne responded by leaving the court as well, and Sarah and she went to stay with their friends Charles Seymour, the sixth Duke of Somerset, and Elizabeth, the Duchess of Somerset, at Syon House. [60] She took the waters at Aachen in Germany on account of her ill health, corresponded with those in England who could supply her with political gossip, and indulged in her fascination with Catholicism.[61]. [17], John and Sarah were both Protestants in a predominantly Catholic court, a circumstance that would complicate their political allegiances. When Sarah became pregnant, her marriage was announced publicly (on 1 October 1678), and she retired from the court to give birth to her first child, Harriet, who died in infancy. Sarah représente Anne auprès de son père, Jacques II d'Angleterre, déchu pendant la Glorieuse Révolution, et défend ses intérêts lors des règnes des successeurs de celui-ci : Guillaume III d'Angleterre et Marie II d'Angleterre. Mais Robert Walpole, le premier lord du Trésor, s'oppose à ce projet[69]. Sarah Churchill (née Jenyns, spelt Jennings in most modern references), Duchess of Marlborough (5 June 1660 (old style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women in British history as a result of her close friendship with Queen Anne of Great Britain. [75] Her wealth was so considerable that Sarah hoped to marry her granddaughter, Lady Diana Spencer, to Frederick, Prince of Wales, for which she would pay a massive dowry of £100,000. Alors qu'elle a seulement 15 ans, elle commence à fréquenter John Churchill, avec qui elle a dansé à l'occasion de divers bals[5]. [64] The Act of Settlement of 1701 ensured a Protestant succession by passing over more than fifty stronger Roman Catholic claimants[65] and proclaiming Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover (the great-grandson of James I through Georg's mother Sophia of Hanover), King George I of Great Britain. Cependant Anne, influencée par Sarah, refuse, indiquant qu'une subvention parlementaire était plus sûre qu'une « charité » accordée par la cassette royale[14]. Elle n'y revient qu'après la mort de la reine, en 1714, sous le règne des Hanovre. Consciente de l'influence grandissante de cette dernière sur la reine, Sarah lui désobéit et lui fait la morale pour la peiner de la mort du prince. John chose Sarah over Catherine Sedley, but both John's and Sarah's families disapproved of the match, therefore they married secretly in the winter of 1677–78. Elle utilise son sens des affaires pour gérer la fortune familiale et en répartir les revenus, y compris pour Henrietta[66]. While the Duke was fighting the War of the Spanish Succession, Sarah kept him informed of court intrigue and conveyed his requests and political advice to the queen. Anne wrote to Marlborough, encouraging him not to let her rift with Sarah become public knowledge; but he could not prevent his wife's indiscretion. Finalement, elle refuse toute idée de remariage, préférant garder son indépendance. Sarah did not share Anne's deep interest in religion, a subject she rarely mentioned, although at their last fraught interview she did warn Anne that she risked God's vengeance for her unreasoning cruelty to Sarah. Il n'est cependant pas certain qu'il aurait fait subir à sa fille le même traitement[11]. He also inherited the remainder of Sarah's numerous estates, including Wimbledon. Sarah a particulièrement soutenu le parti whig et s'est beaucoup investie dans la construction du palais de Blenheim. Anne replied that God's judgment on her concerned herself only, but later admitted that this was the one remark from Sarah which hurt her deeply. From Anne's accession in 1702 until an irreparable quarrel separated them in 1711, Sarah was the power behind the English throne. De là nous allâmes chez le comte de Northampton puis à Nottingham, où la population se rassembla autour de la princesse ; rien ne la rendit plus sûre d'être en sécurité que de se voir entourée par les amis du prince d'Orange. Her friend Arthur Maynwaring wrote that she was more capable of business than any man. Ses autres petits-enfants font également des mariages heureux. Son oncle maternel, Martin Lister, était un biologiste réputé. Sarah est perçue comme l'instigatrice de cette demande, créant ainsi entre elle et la cour une nouvelle inimitié. Both their husbands, though previously loyal to James, had switched their allegiances to William of Orange. Sarah l'emploie dans sa maison, à St Albans et, satisfaite de son service, la nomme Lady of the Bedchamber de la reine Anne en 1704. Marie II réagit en demandant à Anne de renvoyer Sarah, ce qu'elle refuse. Sarah se croit autorisée à mettre en application ses conseils politiques, qu'Anne les aime ou non, et Sarah se fâche quand elle ne les applique pas[83]. [19] In addition, his daughter and heir was a Protestant. John espère peut-être un temps prendre Sarah comme maîtresse à la place de la duchesse de Cleveland, récemment partie pour la France, mais des lettres de Sarah à John parvenues jusqu'à nous montrent qu'elle est peu encline à accepter ce rôle de maîtresse[6],[7]. After hearing this, the Duke of Marlborough, realising that Anne intended to dismiss them, begged her to keep them in their offices for nine months until the campaign was over, so that they could retire honourably. She was surprised by the grief she felt following the death of her eldest living daughter in 1733. [38] Sarah used her close friendship with the Earl of Godolphin, whom Anne trusted, to eventually secure such appointments, but continued to lobby Anne herself. Anne continued to defy the queen’s demand for Sarah’s dismissal, even though an incriminating document signed by the Earl of Marlborough supporting the recently exiled James II and his supporters had been discovered. Guillaume répond à cette demande en lui offrant la somme mais prélevée sur la cassette royale, pour qu'Anne reste dépendante de sa générosité. Après la mort d'Élisabeth de la variole en 1714, Sarah écrit à Robert Jennings, un ami éloigné : « Aucun sujet de pensée ne pourra m'empêcher de pleurer, aussi longtemps que je vivrai, celle que j'avais tant de raisons d'aimer[62]. [90], Abigail Masham also played a key role in Sarah’s downfall. Sarah had a rival for Churchill in Catherine Sedley, a wealthy mistress of James II and the choice of Churchill's father, Sir Winston Churchill, who was anxious to restore the family's fortune. Durant la période de deuil d'Anne après la mort de son mari, Sarah est la seule à refuser de porter les vêtements de deuil. However, fearing Sarah’s powerful influence, William kept Anne out of government affairs, and he did not make her regent in his absences though she was now his heir apparent. En 1689, les soutiens d'Anne (les Marlborough, le duc de Somerset et Charles Seymour) demandent que lui soit versée une annuité parlementaire de 50 000 £, une somme qui lui aurait permis de ne plus dépendre de Marie et Guillaume[14]. Sarah married John Churchill in 1678, who was serving James, then Duke of York. [19], Life for Sarah during the reign of William and Mary was difficult. [23] Sarah was heartbroken over the loss of her son and became reclusive for a period, expressing her grief by closing herself off from Anne and either not answering her letters or doing so in a cold and formal manner. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Ces tentatives de renvoi échouent, même quand Anne est menacée par une requête parlementaire des whigs, qui se méfient de l'influence tory d'Abigail sur la reine[43]. She wrote to the Duke of Somerset, "I have reduced the stables to one third of what was intended by Sir John [Vanbrugh] yet I have room for fourty [sic] fine horses". Sarah est réputée pour dire à la reine exactement ce qu'elle pense et non des flatteries[22]. Despite being Keeper of the Privy Purse, Sarah had been unaware of any such payment. [78][79], The Duchess of Marlborough fought against anything she thought was extravagant. The Duke and Duchess of Marlborough's children who survived childhood married into the most important families in Great Britain:[93], In her own time, Sarah Churchill was satirised by many well-known writers in the period, such as Delarivier Manley in her influential political satire, The New Atalantis (1709), and also by Charles Gildon in the first fully-fledged it-narrative in English, The Golden Spy; or, A Political Journal of the British Nights Entertainments (1709), to name just a few.[94][95]. La reine est d'une piètre compagnie et Sarah ne la trouve pas stimulante. Flattering, subtle and retiring, Abigail was the complete opposite of Sarah, who was dominating, blunt and scathing. [63] Queen Anne died on 1 August 1714 at Kensington Palace; the Protestant Whig Privy Councillors had insisted on their right to be present, preventing Henry St. John, the first Viscount Bolingbroke, from declaring for the Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart. Sarah devient Lady Churchill. Richard Jennings came into contact with James, Duke of York (the future James II, brother of King Charles II), in 1663, during negotiations for the recovery of an estate in Kent (Agney Court) that had been the property of his mother-in-law, Susan Lister (née Temple). In 1689, Anne's supporters (including the Marlboroughs and the Duke of Somerset) demanded that she be granted a parliamentary annuity of £50,000, a sum that would end her dependence on William and Mary. The Duke of Marlborough was recalled from the war and was at his bedside when he died on 20 February 1703. Ils nous conduisirent passer la nuit à l'archevêché dans la City, et le lendemain chez Lord Dorset à Copt-Hall. A brilliant new biographer presents an unforgettable portrait of Sarah Churchill, first Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744), the glamorous and controversial founder of the Sarah was promptly created Mistress of the Robes (the highest office in the royal court that could be held by a woman), Groom of the Stole, Keeper of the Privy Purse, and Ranger of Windsor Great Park. In 1673, Sarah entered court as maid of honour to James’s second wife, Mary of Modena. [28] The general view was that the Marlboroughs had made themselves look ridiculous over a trivial matter – since when, it was asked, did Parliament address the queen on whom she should employ in her bedchamber? Un compte rendu, écrit par Sarah peu après cette rencontre, montre qu'elle a essayé d'obtenir une explication sur la fin de cette amitié, mais Anne n'a pas bougé. » Marlborough reprend ses anciennes fonctions de capitaine général des armées[60]. Épouse de John Churchill, premier duc de Marlborough, elle est considérée comme l’une des femmes les plus influentes de l’histoire des îles Britanniques, du fait de sa proximité avec la reine Anne de Grande-Bretagne. She was a lady-in-waiting/best friend to Queen Anne of England. Anne had explained before that she did not wish the public to know that her relationship with Sarah was failing, because any sign that Sarah was out of favour would have a damaging impact on the Duke of Marlborough's authority as captain-general. Son statut de persona non grata à la cour contrôlée par Walpole l'empêche de s'opposer à la montée des tories. [32] Nevertheless, Anne sent her news of political developments in letters and consulted Sarah's advice in most matters. WINSTON Churchill may be one of the UK’s most iconic figureheads- but it’s hard to keep up with the ever expanding clan. En 1817, elle devient résidence royale pour les membres de la famille royale britannique. Noté /5. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 5 janvier 2021 à 17:09. However, Anne told Marlborough that "for her [Anne's] honour" Sarah was to resign immediately and return her gold key – the symbol of her authority within the royal household – within two days. Ce dernier, grand ami de Sarah, a malgré tout envisagé de refuser les hautes fonctions qu'on lui propose, après l'accession d'Anne au trône, préférant une vie tranquille et loin de la politique et du côté autoritaire de Sarah, qui lui aurait certainement imposé sa volonté lorsque le duc n'est pas là[30]. Sarah was so appalled by the queen's "inhuman" conduct that she was reduced to tears, and, most unusually for a woman who rarely spoke of religion, ended by threatening the queen with the judgment of God. Because Sarah's grandfather, Sir John Jennings, had fathered twenty-two children, she had a multitude of cousins and did not know them all. Le scénario entier répercute le refus d'Anne de céder à Sarah durant le règne de Guillaume et Marie. [81] The Duchess carefully monitored the construction of all Blenheim's features and she fell out with anyone who did not do exactly what she wanted. [76] Walpole, although a Whig, had alienated Sarah by supporting peace in Europe; she was also suspicious of his financial probity and Walpole, in turn, mistrusted Sarah. John, marquis de Blandford était l'héritier du duché de Marlborough. When told the news, Sarah, in a fit of pride, told Marlborough to return the key to the queen immediately. [76], However, Robert Walpole, the First Lord of the Treasury (analogous to a modern Prime Minister) vetoed the plan. Malgré la position de la duchesse de Marlborough à la cour, Abigail est devenue rapidement l'ennemie de Sarah et l'a supplantée auprès d'Anne[84]. Contrairement aux femmes de son époque, qui n'ont aucune influence sur les décisions de leurs maris, Sarah a une grande influence sur les deux hommes les plus puissants du royaume : John Churchill et Sidney Godolphin. During World War II, she joined the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force. Sarah Churchill Duchess of Marlborough: The Queen's Favourite Ophelia Field . Sarah lived to see her enemy Robert Walpole fall in 1742, and in the same year attempted to improve her reputation by approving a biographical publication titled An Account of the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough from her first coming to Court to the year 1710. Cependant, par crainte de l'influence de Sarah, Guillaume garde Anne à l'écart du gouvernement et ne lui confie pas la régence du royaume lors de ses absences[17],[Note 2]. This document is likely to have been forged by Robert Young, a known forger and disciple of Titus Oates; Oates was famous for stirring a strongly anti-Catholic atmosphere in England between 1679 and the early 1680s. Lorsqu'elle se brouille avec Anne en 1711, elle est écartée de la cour, tout comme son mari. Married in May 1643, Dorset, England, to Elizabeth DRAKE, born in 1626 - Devon, England, deceased 18 June 1716 - Windsor, Berkshire, England aged 90 years old , buried - Westminster, London, England (Parents : John DRAKE 1595-1636 & Helena BUTLER 1606-1666) with. 71. Sometime around 1675, Churchill met the 15-year-old Sarah Jennings, who came from a similar background of minor Royalist gentry, ruined by the war. Anne refuse d'admettre Sunderland au conseil, car elle n'aime pas le parti whig, qu'elle considère comme une menace pour ses prérogatives royales[28]. John Churchill Age. [89] She seems to have underestimated Anne's strength of character, continuing to believe she could dominate a woman whom foreign Ambassadors noted had become "very determined and quite ferocious". Des années passées à user de la patience de la reine ont finalement abouti à son renvoi. Although the Duchess of Marlborough’s downfall is chiefly attributed to her own self-serving relationship with Queen Anne, she was a vibrant and intelligent woman who promoted Anne's interests when she was princess. It was at that interview that Anne let slip that she had begged Abigail to tell Sarah of the marriage, and Sarah became suspicious about what had really happened. Sarah se bat contre ce qu'elle estime être de la prodigalité. Elle espère ainsi se protéger de la dévaluation de la monnaie. 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