28 In 2002 the usage rates for these junior high school textbooks were as follows: Tōkyō Shoseki 東京書籍 (51.2%), Ōsaka Shoseki 大阪書籍 (14%), Kyōiku Shuppan 教育出版 (13%), Teikoku Shoin 帝国書院 (10.9%), Nihon Shoseki Shinsha 日本書籍新社 (5.9%), Shimizu Shoin 清水書院 (2.5%), Nihon Bunkyō Shuppan 日本文教出版 (2.3%). Japan's 'nationalist' school books teach a different view of history. Kokkyō o koeru rekishi ninshiki: nitchū taiwa no kokoromi, : An Attempt at Sino‑Japanese Dialogue), Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppan. 332‑333. were perceived by the Koryŏ and Chosŏn dynasties as being “Japanese”. 44 Atarashii shakai rekishi, op. 72Perceptions in Korea are markedly different. Yet this fear has in no way cast doubt on the friendly relations that existed between the two countries in ancient and early‑modern times. or the political use of textbooks in Japan’s nationalist discourse. 19 Chang Sin 장신, “Ilbon ŭi kyogwasŏ chedo wa munjechŏm” 일본의 교과서 제도와 문제점 (The Problem with Japan’s Textbook System), in Mundap ŭro ingnŭn Ilbon kyogwasŏ yŏksa waegok, op. Rarer are those, on the other hand, that specify in what way Japan’s diplomatic letter was “insolent”, namely its use of the character “hwang”, to refer to the Japanese emperor, which officially placed him above the Korean “wang”, Han‑Il kwan’gye 2 ch’ŏn nyŏn (kŭn hyŏndae), Some Korean historians are more radical and reject any causal link between Korea’s refusal to “open up” and the. 18Accounting for twenty‑five of the thirty‑five criticisms formulated by the Korean government during the 2001 crisis, the Tsukuru‑kai textbook was at the heart of the controversy. Aside from factual errors that were corrected in the following edition,25 Korea’s complaints essentially focused on statements that were “technically correct” but potentially misleading.26 An illustrative example of this tendency of the Tsukuru‑kai textbook is its description of the 1910 annexation of Korea: The Japanese government saw the annexation of Korea as vital to protect Japanese security and defend its interests in Manchuria. ), Chōsen no rekishi 朝鮮の歴史, Sansei‑dō 三省堂, 1995, pp. Furthermore, a “Japanese embassy”. The approval of a controversial Japanese history textbook in April has prompted a wave of criticism from neighboring countries concerned about its accuracy and tone. 34 Atarashii shakai rekishi, op. 88, 2007, pp. Japanese specialists also emphasise the egalitarian nature of the context in which these embassies were sent. In other words, Korea suffered the collateral damage of a more ambitious operation of which it was not the primary target. Examples of this are the joint research conducted since 1997 by the Research Society for History Textbooks (Yŏksa Kyogwasŏ Yŏnguhoe 역사교과서연구회) and the Research Society for History Education (Rekishi Kyōiku Kenkyū‑kai 歴史教育研究会),95 as well as the publishing in 2005 of a book edited by Chinese, Japanese and Korean specialists, published96 in all three languages and intended to be a concrete example of what a history textbook used jointly in all three countries might resemble. cit., p. 149. Since then, the subject has been the focus of increasing attention: The Japanese Empire did not content itself with plundering raw materials. ), » (Historical Revisionism in Japan Today), Politics, Memory and Public Opinion: The History Textbook Controversy and Japanese Society, (Japanese History Falsified by the Koreans), Tokyo, Shōgakukan, (The Huge Divergences between Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Russian History Textbooks), Tokyo, Fusōsha, (To Those Who Claim There Are No Distortions in Korean History Textbooks), in Ch, Kankoku, Kita chōsen no uso o miyaburu: kingendai‑shi no sōten 30, (The Lies of South and North Korea Revealed: Thirty Contentious Issues in Modern and Contemporary History), Tokyo, Bungei Shunjū, Han‑Nichi kanjō: Kankoku‑Chōsenjin to nihonjin, (Anti‑Japanese Sentiment: Koreans and Japanese), Tokyo, Kōdansha, Kankoku, chūgoku “rekishi kyōkasho” o tettei hihan suru: waikyoku sareta tai‑nichi kankei‑shi, (Radical Criticism of Chinese and Korean “History Textbooks”: A Distorted History of Relations with Japan), Tokyo Shōgakukan, For example, of the four examiners responsible for Japanese history textbooks, two are former students of, , a professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo and writer and editor‑in‑chief for the. 81 While Japanese specialists now seem to agree that the Nihon‑fu was not an instrument for Yamato’s colonial domination of Kaya, opinions differ as to the nature of this organ: diplomatic delegation, trading post, embassies, etc. Japanese History Textbook Raises Concerns Asia Today, 10 July 2001. In the subsequent edition (2006) this passage was modified as follows: The Japanese Empire also took women, who were exploited in so‑called battalions of workers for the homeland [kŭllo pogugtae. During this period even women were drafted into so‑called female volunteer battalions. Yet this fear has in no way cast doubt on the friendly relations that existed between the two countries in ancient and early‑modern times. and a simplistic portrayal of Japan, which is described essentially as an aggressor or a diligent student that absorbed Korea’s “advanced” culture over hundreds of years. ), this was also due to the negative image —of a weak country inferior to Japan— associated with Korea during this period.71, 51While colonisation is the main cause of Korea’s resentment towards Japan, this period drew few criticisms from the Korean government. , “Kindai gaikō taisei no sōshutsu: Chōsen no baai o chūshin ni, Higashi ajia‑shi no naka no nihon to chōsen, (Perceptions of Asia in Modern Japan), Minerv. I will examine some of the most sensitive historical issues with a view to assessing the validity of the reciprocal criticisms voiced by the Korean government in 2001 and those close to the Tsukuru‑kai. A comparison with the Korean textbook nonetheless provides a partial answer. This does not mean that this episode in the two countries’ shared history is not a controversial su, Contrary to what one might think, the annexation of Korea is thus not a particularly problematic subject as far as history textbooks are concerned. from 8 October 1998 in which the South Korean President Kim Taejung, who was visiting Japan, and the Japanese Prime Minister Obuchi Keizō expressed their shared belief in the “importance of deepening the historical consciousness of the two peoples, particularly that of the younger generations”. They consider the claim that Korea was closed to Japan, or that diplomatic relations between the two countries did not exist until the signing of the Treaty of Kanghwa in 1876, to be erroneous. Furthermore, a “Japanese embassy” [Wakan 和館] belonging to the Sō clan was established in Pusan, Korea, housing between 400 and 500 Japanese engaged in trade or intelligence gathering.50, 36Three points were raised by the Korean government. ), op. While the government has not proposed its own interpretation of the causes of the invasion, the Korean textbook leaves no doubt as to Japan’s designs on Korea: In a bid divert the attention of disgruntled Japanese away from Japan and give free rein to his desire to advance, across the continent, [Hideyoshi] decided to invade Korea. an advanced culture to Japan, which greatly contributed to the development of ancient Japanese culture during the Asuka period. Three points were raised by the Korean government. After the annexation and colonisation of Korea, Japan developed railway and irrigation infrastructure and undertook a cadastral land survey. This process continued with the invasions by Hideyoshi and simply intensified in the late nineteenth century with the “debate on the Korean expedition”.97. ), Chōsen‑shi 朝鮮史, Yamakawa Shuppan 山川出版, 1993, pp. RESOLUTION ON REVISION OF THE DISTORTION OF HISTORY IN JAPANESE TEXTBOOKS The Third World Congress of Education International, meeting in Jomtien, Thailand, from 25 to 29 July, 2001: 1. They claim that Meiji leaders purposely used terms that disparaged the Korean monarch’s status in order to provoke a refusal from Korea. ), Cipango no. ), op. According to Korean specialists, another example of this idea is the “Debate over an Expedition to, Many Koreans see Hideyoshi’s attitude as illustrating one of the characteristics of relations between the two countries: Japan’s use of Korea to settle its political problems at home. ), Kokkyō o koeru rekishi ninshiki: nitchū taiwa no kokoromi 国境を越える歴史認識 日中対話の試み (Cross‑Border Historical Consciousness: An Attempt at Sino‑Japanese Dialogue), Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppan 東京大学出版, 2006, p. 210. University professors or lecturers, these examiners are hired on the recommendation of previous examiners or members of the Authorisation Council according to criteria that remain vague and place a question mark over the examiners’ impartiality.16, 11The actual selection of junior high school textbooks varies according to the type of school. The Korean government’s displeasure is largely shared by the Korean population, as evidenced, for example, by the creation in recent years of dozens of citizens associations protesting against Japanese textbook revisionism. 80 This statement was made in August 1993 by Kōno Yōhei, the Miyazaki administration’s Chief Cabinet Secretary, concerning the result of an investigation undertaken by the Japanese government on this issue; “Ianfu kankei chōsa kekka happyō ni kan suru Kōnō naikaku kanbō‑chōkan danwa” 慰安婦関係調査結果発表に関する河野内閣官房長官談話 (Statement by Chief Cabinet Secretary Kōnō Regarding the Announced Results of the Comfort Women Investigation), http://www.mofa.go.jp/MOFAJ/area/taisen/kono.html (25 October 2008). A joint working committee has recently been formed by the National Association of Japanese Canadians’ ( NAJC) Human Rights Committee and the Vancouver & Toronto Chapters of the Association for Learning & Preserving the History of World War II in Asia . As for the Ōsaka Shoseki textbook, it merely points out the links (. ) Unlike the joint history textbook used by French and German senior high school students since 2006, none of the three countries has adopted this book as a textbook. What's worse, Japanese youth who learn the twisted history from these authorized textbooks will form incorrect views of history which won't match those of people in other countries. Die maritime Seidenstrasse: Küstenräume, Seefahrt und Handel in vorkolonialer Zeit. 67 Han‑Il kwan’gyesa hakhwoe 한일관계사학회 (ed. 74 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi, 2002, p. 263. The monk Hyeja from Koguryŏ became tutor to Shōtoku Taishi; Tamjing taught the Japanese the art of making paper, ink and inkwells; the mural Kumtang at Hōryūji is known to be his handiwork. Japanese history textbooks fail to mention Gojoseon (Dan-gun Joseon), the first nation state in Korea which is believed to have been established about 2,333 B.C. Examination of the history textbooks screened in 1981 for use in senior high schools in 1983 revealed that the Education Ministry had 'recommended' changes in certain passages describing the activities of' the Japanese military in Asian countries before and during World War II. , which the Tsukuru‑kai textbook describes as follows: , 2001, p. 97 and 106. Introduction . Consequently, this passage was modified in the following edition (2006) to read: “the Yamato army came to Paekche’s aid and waged violent battles against Koguryŏ” (p. 32). 75 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi, op. Finally, presenting where necessary the views of specialists in both countries will provide a more nuanced assessment of the true scale of the divergences separating Koreans and Japanese in their view of the past. Instead, the Japanese textbooks authorised in 2001 were deemed guilty of “disparaging” (, ) Korean history with a view to “embellishing” (. Cet article se penche sur la crise de 2001 au sujet des manuels d’histoire suite à l’homologation du manuel révisionniste de la Société pour la rédaction de nouveaux manuels d’histoire (« Tsukuru‑kai »). It not only started to distort the history and spread the incorrect geographical names but also started to distort the historical heritages of Korea as well. cit., 2001, p. 131. However, the decision is largely determined by the recommendations of the Prefectural Boards of Education (Todōfuken Kyōiku Iinkai 都道府県教育 委員会) which appoint school principals, teachers or education board members as examiners responsible for evaluating the authorised textbooks. In the Japanese embassy set up in Pusan, Korea, silver and bronze were exported while cotton, Korean ginseng and raw silk were imported.52, 38Concerning the first two points, namely the resumption of diplomatic relations and sending of Korean embassies, the Korean government merely criticised the imprecision of Japanese textbooks but refrained from providing its own interpretation of the reasons behind this rapprochement. Since then, the subject has been the focus of increasing attention: The Japanese Empire did not content itself with plundering raw materials. 17 These establishments account for less than 10% of Japanese junior high school students. […] Following seven years of war in Korea, many men were killed or taken to Japan. 32Such an explanation, suggesting that Korea was above all a victim of her geographic location rather than a deliberately aggressive act by Japan, does not seem to satisfy the Korean government. 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