Gustavus instead turned his eyes back to Poland. [67], However, once again Richelieu provided the requisite support; in the 1631 Treaty of Bärwalde, he provided funds for the Heilbronn League, a Swedish-led coalition of German Protestant states, including Saxony and Brandenburg. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. [122] Well into the 19th century, far more soldiers died of disease than in battle; of an estimated 700,000 to 1,200,000 military casualties between 1618 and 1648, only 25 to 30% were the result of combat, or combat-related injuries. This surprising fact arises from Sweden’s intervention in the Thirty Years War in 1630, and her central role in the conflict during the following 18 years. This agreement was gradually undermined by political and religious tensions, and in 1618 the Protestant-dominated Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia. As the Thirty Years War began to rage through Germany, Gustavus Adolphus wanted to join in the conflict, but he could not do it alone. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden arrived too late to save Magdeburg, but at Breitenfeld he changed the course of the Thirty Years' War -- and the state of the military art. In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. [111], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. At sixteen he contested three wars, against the Russians, the Danes and the Poles. But when a siege of Dantzic was begun, the Swedes were unable to capture it. His achievements must surely have inspired Peter the Great to do the same for Russia. Although Richelieu was a powerful and necessary ally for Gustavus, he would also want to be sure the Swedes did not get too powerful, as their interests just happened to coincide in this instance. Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. The Protestants rose up in revolt, but within two years the rebellion was stamped out by the Habsburg general, Count of Tilly.After Bohemia was defeated the Protestant king of Denmark invaded the empire but was defeated by the famous general Albrecht von Wallenstein. [17], The war consisted of two main phases, the first being a primarily internal conflict between Emperor Ferdinand II and his opponents within the Holy Roman Empire, with external powers playing a supportive role. Food shortages were worsened by an explosion in the rodent population; Bavaria was over-run by wolves in the winter of 1638, its crops destroyed by packs of wild pigs the following spring. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. Gustavus AdolphusThe king of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, credited with founding the Swedish Empire, who led Sweden to military supremacy during the Thirty Years’ War. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (. 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