In Kampong Glam, people who lived in villages around the Sultan Mosque – both Malays and non-Malays – fled to the mosque during air raids and prayed for safety there. It took four or five years for the economy to return to pre-war levels. Surrendering at the Ford Factory Such makeshift hospitals in the city included the St Andrew’s Cathedral, Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall and the St Joseph’s Institution. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II, the city was the headquarters for the Japanese 25th Army, the force which occupied Sumatra. They were then turned into a variety of dishes, as both desserts and all three meals of the day. Sixteen hours later, American President Harry S. Truman called again for Japan's surrender, warning them to "expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth." Syonan (Japanese: 昭南, Hepburn: Shōnan, Kunrei-shiki: Syônan), officially Syonan-to (Japanese: 昭南島, Hepburn: Shōnan-tō, Kunrei-shiki: Syônan-tô) was the name for Singapore when it was occupied and ruled by the Empire of Japan, following the fall and surrender of British military forces on 15 February 1942 during World War II. In a matter of nine minutes, the Japanese officially surrendered, and the surrender was publicly declared by Lord Louis Mountbatten on the steps of the Municipal Building. And from there I could see, I looked across next to the Cathay Building, there was a table and that fellow’s head was there.". British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the fall of Singapore "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history".[7]. Japanese movies and propaganda films were screened in the theatres, with rare treats of German and Italian films. The occupation commenced with Imperial Japanese Army landings at Padang Pak Amat beach Kota Bharu just after midnight on 8 December 1941, triggering a ferocious battle with the British Indian Army an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor. On 6 August 1945, the United States detonated an atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. It was often hit by flying footballs during games, and early Padang spectators liked sitting at its base for a good view. The site of this monument is located in Changi Beach Park (near Camp Site 2) in the eastern part of Singapore. Michiels monument was a monument in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. On 15 February 1942, Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival and three other officers walked to the Ford Factory. The memorial was officially unveiled by Singapore's first prime minister Lee Kuan Yew on the 25th anniversary of the start of the Japanese occupation in 1967. National Museum of Singapore collection. While Ford Factory witnessed the beginning of the Japanese Occupation on 15 February 1942, the Municipal Building celebrated its end on 12 September 1945. General Yamashita took over the premise and turned it into a Japanese headquarters, where he awaited Lieutenant-General Percival’s arrival on the morning of 15 February 1942. Tens of thousands were estimated to have lost their lives. Today, that space is the car park of the Singapore Art Museum (SAM) which now occupies the building. Daily prayers were conducted for internees in Changi Gaol by Canon Jack Bennett and others responsible to Bishop Wilson who gave devoted service to all races in captivity. The Japanese representatives arrived shortly thereafter and proceeded to the Municipal Building where they waited to sign the surrender document, witnessed by several individuals including the Sultan of Johore. [16], The Japanese occupation of Singapore has been depicted in media and popular culture, including films, television series and books, Japanese military rule over Singapore, including massacres of Chinese Singaporeans, States and territories in the sphere of influence of the. Both the British colonial and Japanese occupation authorities encouraged their local population to grow their own food even if they had the smallest amount of land. After the Japanese surrendered, there was a state of instability anomie in Singapore, as the British had not yet arrived to take control. 20 Malay schools re-opened on 12 April and four days later, 10 Indian schools started class. 1 Well aware of the communist influence in MPAJA, the British were prepared to arm them as long as the MPAJA kept their objectives to purely military concerns. Naval facilities and docks in Singapore were also bombed on eleven occasions by American air units between November 1944 and May 1945. Singapore was renamed ‘Syonan-to’ which meant ‘the Light of the South’ or ‘the Radiant South’. A rail line connecting the city with Payakumbuh and Padang was constructed between 1891 and 1894. After several more days of behind-the-scenes negotiations and a failed coup d'état, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address across the Empire on 15 August. The Civilian War Memorial, located east of the Padang on Beach Road, commemorates these civilian victims of World War II and the unity of Singapore’s four main races—Malay, Chinese, Indian and Eurasian. In Syonan, they focused on teaching of the Japanese language and cultures. During air raids, the building’s large size and thick walls could provide people with adequate protection from the blasts. For instance, the iconic block with the clock tower of the Singapore General Hospital was renamed Bowyer Block in memory of John Herbert Bowyer, Chief Medical Officer of the Outram Road General Hospital. Tan Sri Chong Hon Nyan recalls seeing the Japanese practicing kendo and INA recruits marching with wooden rifles. On 18 February 1942, three days after the surrender of Singapore, the Kempeitai launched a month-long purge of 'anti-Japanese elements' in an operation named Sook Ching. Singapore was officially returned to British colonial rule on 12 September 1945, following the formal signing of the surrender instrument at the Municipal Building, now known as the City Hall. It was where the heads of beheaded spies would be hung by the Japanese forces during the Japanese Occupation. It is said that more than 50,000 people were killed during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, from 15 February 1942 to 12 September 1945. During the Japanese Occupation, the statue was moved to Syonan Museum (the former Raffles Museum, now National Museum Singapore ), and it was widely believed that the Japanese had intended for it to be melted for its bronze. Add your article. Sixteen hours later, American President Harry S. Truman called again for Japan's surrender, warning them to "expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth." The Cenotaph, unveiled on 31 March 1922 by the Prince of Wales, was erected in honour of the 124 men from Singapore who died in action during World War I. Every morning, school-children had to stand facing the direction of Japan (in the case of Singapore, looking northeast) and sing the Japanese national anthem ("Kimigayo"). As air raids intensified and soldiers started retreating from Malaya into Singapore, several other makeshift hospitals emerged to help existing hospitals cope with the increasing number of wounded. Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command, came to Singapore to receive the formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Seishirō Itagaki on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi. An ancillary building of the Sultan Mosque hit during an air raid. 8 August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war and on 9 August 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Instead, the message “They died so we might live” was inscribed. Text by Foo Min Li Spectators planted themselves at vantage points – including the base of the dome of the former Supreme Court and the roof of the Municipal Building – to witness this historic moment. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II, the city was the headquarters for the Japanese 25th Army, the force which occupied Sumatra. Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, "Explore Japan National Flag and National Anthem", "PEACE LIVING CERTIFICATE ISSUED DURING JAPANESE OCCUPATION", Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan and British North Borneo, History of World War II by region and country, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, German pre–World War II industrial co-operation, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, British Military Administration (1945–1946), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_occupation_of_Singapore&oldid=998499376, States and territories established in 1942, States and territories disestablished in 1945, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Singapore English, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 17:24. 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