The actions of Old Hamlet also show that Old Hamlet had a very close relationship with Gertrude and was very protective of her. Her personality was characterised by energy, intellect, and a thirst for adventure that shaped her path in life. She left for Mesopotamia in January 1909. She traveled to the Middle East again in 1899. This particular theme for my blog assignment came to me after reading some of my other classmate’s work regarding foils in Hamlet. Gertrude Bell is remembered in Iraq in the 21st century. Gertrude Bell was born on 14 July 1868 in Washington New Hall, County Durham, England, into a wealthy family of ironmasters. Bell was portrayed by Janet McTeer in the 1995 Dora Carrington biopic Carrington, and by Miranda Richardson in the 2002 film The Hours. Through all her wanderings, whether far or near, she kept in the closest touch with her home, always … When Gertrude was 16, she met 21-year-old George Francis Temple; they married in 1910. [17]:14–17 After his death in 1915 during the Gallipoli Campaign, Bell launched herself into her work. In November 1919, Bell was an invited speaker at a meeting for the promotion of a public library in Baghdad, and subsequently served on its Library Committee, as President from 1921 to 1924. [16] She also had an unconsummated affair with Maj. Charles Doughty-Wylie, a married man, with whom she exchanged love letters from 1913 to 1915. "[27] In an intelligence report, Bell wrote: The battalion left Aleppo on 3 February and reached Ras al-Ain in twelve hours....some 12,000 Armenians were concentrated under the guardianship of some hundred Kurds...These Kurds were called gendarmes, but in reality mere butchers; bands of them were publicly ordered to take parties of Armenians, of both sexes, to various destinations, but had secret instructions to destroy the males, children and old women...One of these gendarmes confessed to killing 100 Armenian men himself...the empty desert cisterns and caves were also filled with corpses...No man can ever think of a woman's body except as a matter of horror, instead of attraction, after Ras al-Ain."[28]. W. H. I. Shakespear's data about the location and disposition of Arab tribes. During the spring of 1900 she went to visit t… Because her parents worked long hours and her father died when she was 15, Gertrude spent much of her childhood caring for her younger brother, Ralph. Gertrude Bell’s family was wealth and influential. At the outbreak of World War I, Bell's request for a Middle East posting was initially denied. [49][50], English writer, traveller, political officer and archaeologist, Gertrude Bell in 1909, visiting archaeological excavations in. Both Bell and Lawrence had attended Oxford and earned a First Class Honours in Modern History, both spoke fluent Arabic and both had travelled extensively in the Arabian desert and established ties with the local tribes before World War I. She has been described as "one of the few representatives of His Majesty's Government remembered by the Arabs with anything resembling affection". The "Mother of the Blues", she bridged earlier vaudeville and the authentic expression of southern blues, influencing a generation of blues singers. She played a major role in establishing and helping administer the modern state of Iraq, using her unique perspective from her travels and relations with tribal leaders throughout the Middle East. She defied the expectations of a woman in Victorian England, becoming a … The new Hashemite monarchy used the Sharifian flag, which consisted of a black stripe representing the Abbasid caliphate, white stripe representing the Umayyad caliphate, and a green stripe for Fatimid Dynasty, and lastly a red triangle to set across the three bands symbolising Islam. Gertrude Bell's first love had always been archaeology, thus she began forming what became the Baghdad Archaeological Museum, later renamed the Iraqi Museum. And here we are, talking all about the men, again. While in the Middle East, Gertrude Bell was a witness to the Armenian Genocide. Gertrude Amelia Krieger was born on July 15, 1893, in Chicago, Illinois. Her love for archaeology led her to form the Baghdad Archaeological Museum, now known as the Iraqi Museum, by bringing in extensive collections of artifacts from the Babylonian empire. [8]:365–369 Until her death in Baghdad, she served in the Iraq British High Commission advisory group there. [19], She published her observations of the Middle East in the book Syria: The Desert and the Sown (1907, William Heinemann Ltd, London). She returned to Baghdad and soon developed pleurisy. Her grandfather was the ironmaster Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, an industrialist and a Liberal Member of Parliament, in Benjamin Disraeli's second term. Turning the building into a memorial to Bell is partially the result of a 2015 exhibition about her at the Great North Museum in Newcastle. Lawrence and the British used the information in forming alliances with the Arabs. If she were a mirror (or foil) of Ophelia, and was unaware of the poison, then Gertrude dies because the men surrounding her are too caught up in their own concerns to think on the consequences of their actions. Through her travels, she became well versed in Arabic, Persian, German, French as well as a little bit of Turkish and Italian. Gertrude Bell was a writer, explorer and archaeologist. On 12 July 1926, Bell was discovered dead, of an apparent overdose of sleeping pills. Similarly, Gertrude Bell’s mother, Mary Shield Bell, died giving birth to a son, Maurice, when Bell was three years old. She also supervised the selection of appointees for cabinet and other leadership posts in the new government. [45] The inscription reads: This window is in remembrance of Gertrude Versed in the learning of the east and of the west Servant of the state Scholar Poet Historian Antiquary Gardener Mountaineer Explorer Lover of nature of flowers and of animals Incomparable friend sister daughter. Her family's fortune had begun to decline due to the onset of post-World War I strikes by workers in Britain and economic depression in Europe. Cox found her an office in his headquarters, where she was employed for the two days per week she was not at Military GHQ Basra. Lawrence.[8]:160–161. She was an archaeologist fascinated with Arab culture, a linguist, a spy, and the greatest female mountaineer of her age. To honor her memory, a stained-glass window was erected in St Lawrence’s Church in East Rounton, North Yorkshire. Historians have pointed out that the present troubles in Iraq to be derived from the political boundaries Bell conceived to create its borders. [30] The museum was officially opened in June 1926, shortly before Bell's death. In 1899, Bell again went to the Middle East. [8]:413–419[31][32], Throughout the early 1920s Bell was an integral part of the administration of Iraq. She spent most of the next decade traveling around the world. In 1915, both Bell and Lawrence were assigned to the Army Intelligence Headquarters in Cairo for war service, because of their extensive knowledge of the region and languages spoken therein. Using Shi'ite history to gain support for Faisal, during the holy month of Muharram, Bell compared Faisal's arrival in Baghdad to Husayn, grandson of Muhammad. 1920, Lifestory of Gertrude Bell, from "Lives of the First World War", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gertrude_Bell&oldid=1001358856, Commanders of the Order of the British Empire, People educated at Queen's College, London, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Writer, traveller, political officer, archaeologist, explorer, cartographer in, This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 09:58. 12 July, 2016 marks 90 years since the death of Gertrude Bell.. As grand reopenings go, it may prove to be a somewhat low-key affair. [18], Between 1899 and 1904, she conquered a number of mountains, including the La Meije and Mont Blanc, as she recorded 10 new paths or first ascents in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland. On 10 March 1917, Bell was summoned to Baghdad by Chief Political Officer Percy Cox after the British forces had overtaken Baghdad. T his piece was published on 21 February, 2014. However, her lobbying for the Sunni minority to control the Shia majority created a template for the Sunni dictatorships that followed. David Hogarth recognised the value of Lawrence and Bell's expertise and upon his recommendation first Lawrence, then Bell, were assigned to Army Intelligence Headquarters in Cairo in 1915 for war service. In May 1892, Gertrude Bell traveled to Tehran to visit her uncle Sir Frank Lascelles, the British ambassador to Persia. She was skilled with languages, learning many throughout her life. Her involvement in the museum was destined to be her last project as she died from an overdose of sleeping pills in Baghdad in July 1926. She was conferred upon the title of ‘Oriental Secretary’. Bell's mother, Mary Shield Bell, died in 1871 while giving birth to a son, Maurice (later the 3rd Baronet). Contrasting them with previous massacres, she wrote that the massacres of preceding years "were not comparable to the massacres carried out in 1915 and the succeeding years. She was conferred upon the Order of the British Empire and her work was specially mentioned and acknowledged in the British Parliament. She brought in extensive collections, such as from the Babylonian Empire. Bell’s grandfather was the ironmaster Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, a liberal Member of Parliament during Benjamin Disraeli’s second term. She also played a key role in designing the Iraqi national flag as we know it today. Additionally, being a woman gave her exclusive access to the chambers of wives of tribe leaders, giving her access to other perspectives and functions. As a result of her mother’s death, she became close to her father who was a progressive capitalist and mill owner. In a letter to her stepmother, she recounts how she had the research room to herself and spoke to some Syrians from Damascus who were part of the ethnographic section of the exhibition. Bell traveled to the Middle East for the first time in 1892 to visit her uncle, who was the British ambassador to Tehran in Persia (now Iran). [12] However, the two women were not awarded academic degrees. Due to her familiarity and relations with the tribes in the area she had strong ideas about the leadership needed in Iraq. Renowned archaeologist and historian Lt. Cmdr. Iraq not only contained valuable resources in oil but would act as a buffer zone, with the help of Kurds in the north as a standing army in the region to protect against Turkey, Persia (Iran), and Syria. They could then be encouraged to join the British against the Ottoman Empire. Later, Bell’s father remarried after four years to Florence Olliffe. During her lifetime she was highly esteemed and trusted by British officials and exerted an immense amount of power. [8]:33–34 Throughout her life, Gertrude consulted on political matters with her father, who had also served for many years in various governmental positions. A campaign was launched in 2016 to turn Gertrude Bell’s family estate called ‘Red Barns’ into a museum and memorial to her. In 1961, this became the National Library of Iraq. "[40] He quotes Bell's colleague, T. E. 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